Next Article in Journal
MTOR Variation Related to Heat Resistance of Chinese Cattle
Previous Article in Journal
Elucidating Patterns in the Occurrence of Threatened Ground-Dwelling Marsupials Using Camera-Traps

Physiological and Behavioral Indicators to Measure Crustacean Welfare

Department of Biology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, USA
Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Kentucky University, Highland Heights, KY 41099, USA
Sea Farms Limited, Redditch, Worcestershire B98 0RE, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2019, 9(11), 914;
Received: 22 October 2019 / Revised: 25 October 2019 / Accepted: 2 November 2019 / Published: 3 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Welfare)
This project determined how neural circuits are affected during warming by examining sensory neurons, the neuromuscular junction, and the cardiac function and behavior of the commercially important crustacean species, the red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii). Rapid inactivation of neural function in crustaceans prior to slaughter is important to limit exposure to noxious stimuli, thus improving animal welfare. This study demonstrated that as a crayfish is warmed at 1 °C/min, the heart beat stops at 44 °C. When temperature is rapidly increased, at 44 °C synaptic transmission at the neuromuscular junction ceases and primary sensory neurons stop functioning. Even though animals do not respond to stimuli after being warmed to 44 °C, if sensory neurons are returned to 20 °C saline after two minutes, they may regain function. Conversely, the neuromuscular junction does not regain function after two minutes in 44 °C saline. Examining behavior and heart rate while warming at 1 °C/min, 12 °C/min, or 46 °C/min to 80 °C indicated that at approximately 40 °C the heart rate is altered. Within 10 s at 80 °C, the heart stops with the highest heating rate. Directly placing crayfish in boiling water stopped the heart quickest, within 10 s, which likely represents denaturing of the tissue by heat. Using an impedance measure to detect a heartbeat may also be influenced by movements in the denaturing process of the tissue. A rapid increase in the temperature of the crayfish above 44 °C is key to limit its exposure to noxious stimuli. View Full-Text
Keywords: crayfish; slaughter; heating crayfish; slaughter; heating
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Adams, R.; Stanley, C.E.; Piana, E.; Cooper, R.L. Physiological and Behavioral Indicators to Measure Crustacean Welfare. Animals 2019, 9, 914.

AMA Style

Adams R, Stanley CE, Piana E, Cooper RL. Physiological and Behavioral Indicators to Measure Crustacean Welfare. Animals. 2019; 9(11):914.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Adams, Rebecca, Catherine E. Stanley, Elena Piana, and Robin L. Cooper 2019. "Physiological and Behavioral Indicators to Measure Crustacean Welfare" Animals 9, no. 11: 914.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop