Goat reproductive traits are complex quantitative traits controlled by polygenes and multipoint. To date, some high-fertility candidate genes in livestock have been unearthed and the growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9
) gene is one of them, which plays a crucial role in early folliculogenesis. According to the relevant previous studies and the National Center for Biotechnology Information Search database (NCBI), a total of 45 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been detected in the goat GDF9
gene, but which one or which ones have important effects on goat fecundity is still uncertain. Hence, in order to find effective molecular markers for goat genetic breeding and accelerate the goat improvement, this study summarized and classified the above 45 SNPs into four kinds, as well as compared and analyzed the same SNP effects and the different SNPs linkage effects on the reproductive traits in different goat breeds. Since there were many SNPs in the goat GDF9
gene, only 15 SNPs have been identified in more than 30 goat breeds worldwide and they showed different effects on the litter size. Therefore, this study mainly chose these 15 SNPs and discussed their relationship with goat productivity. Results showed that three non-synonymous SNPs A240V, Q320P, and V397I and three synonymous ones L61L, N121N, and L141L played a “true” role in the litter size trait in many goat breeds around the world. However, the regulatory mechanisms still need further research. These results provide an effective tool for follow-up research developing the goat molecular breeding strategies and improving the goat reproductive traits.
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