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Article

Herd Prevalence Estimation of Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis Burden in the Three Main Dairy Production Regions of Germany (PraeMAP)

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Niedersächsische Tierseuchenkasse, Anstalt des öffentlichen Rechts, 30169 Hanover, Germany
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Department of Biometry, Epidemiology and Information Processing, WHO Collaborating Centre for Research and Training for Health at the Human-Animal-Environment Interface, University of Veterinary Medicine, 30559 Hanover, Germany
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Bavarian Animal Health Service, 85586 Poing, Germany
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Thüringer Tierseuchenkasse, Anstalt des Öffentlichen Rechts, 07745 Jena, Germany
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Klinikum Veterinärmedizin, Klinik für Geburtshilfe, Gynäkologie und Andrologie der Groß- und Kleintiere mit Tierärztlicher Ambulanz, Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen, 35390 Giessen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Søren Nielsen and Alfonso Zecconi
Animals 2022, 12(4), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12040447
Received: 24 December 2021 / Revised: 9 February 2022 / Accepted: 10 February 2022 / Published: 12 February 2022
Paratuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), is widely spread among ruminants worldwide. After a long-lasting incubation period, infected animals suffer from chronic granulomatous enteritis. Economic losses are caused by premature culling, reduced milk yield and slaughter value in the dairy and beef industry, triggering attempts to control the disease. Paratuberculosis is a listed disease (category E), according to the European Animal Health Law, and intended to be monitored within the European Union. Evaluation of several herd-level monitoring approaches including the testing of environmental fecal samples to detect the infectious agent have been evaluated, proving environmental sampling to be a useful monitoring tool on herd level. This study comprises the application of environmental sampling within a herd prevalence estimation study in German dairy herds. Based on regional differences in the structure of livestock farming, Germany was divided into three regions where a representative number of farms were visited for sample collection. The results clearly indicate a different regional MAP herd level prevalence. The highest percentage of affected herds is found in the eastern part with large dairy herds, and the lowest in the south with the smallest average herd size. We conclude that the regional differences in MAP prevalence imply different approaches to control the disease.
On-farm environmental sampling is an effective method for herd-level diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection and between-herd prevalence estimation. So far, no prevalence study enrolling important livestock-farming regions has been conducted. As the structure of dairy farming differs between main livestock-farming regions in Germany, our objective was to assess the between-herd prevalence of paratuberculosis for these regions in a standardized approach. Methods: In total, 457 randomly selected dairy farms from three regions of Germany (North: 183, East: 170, South: 104) were sampled between 2017 and 2019. Environmental samples (boot-swabs, aggregate feces and/or liquid manure samples) were cultured and analyzed using an IS900-qPCR for MAP determination. Of the 457 selected farms, 94 had at least one MAP-positive environmental sample with significant differences between regions regarding the apparent (North: 12.0%, East: 40.6%, South: 2.9%) or corrected true (North: 14.8%, East: 50.1%, South: 3.6%) between-herd prevalence. In conclusion, regional differences of between-herd prevalence of paratuberculosis are substantial in Germany, indicating the need for control approaches with different aims. Taking into account regional MAP prevalence, MAP-control programs should focus on on-farm prevalence reduction or on mitigating the risk of between-herd transmission, depending on region. View Full-Text
Keywords: paratuberculosis; cattle; MAP-control program; MAP prevalence paratuberculosis; cattle; MAP-control program; MAP prevalence
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MDPI and ACS Style

Eisenberg, S.; Krieger, M.; Campe, A.; Lorenz, I.; Einax, E.; Donat, K. Herd Prevalence Estimation of Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis Burden in the Three Main Dairy Production Regions of Germany (PraeMAP). Animals 2022, 12, 447. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12040447

AMA Style

Eisenberg S, Krieger M, Campe A, Lorenz I, Einax E, Donat K. Herd Prevalence Estimation of Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis Burden in the Three Main Dairy Production Regions of Germany (PraeMAP). Animals. 2022; 12(4):447. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12040447

Chicago/Turabian Style

Eisenberg, Susanne, Mette Krieger, Amely Campe, Ingrid Lorenz, Esra Einax, and Karsten Donat. 2022. "Herd Prevalence Estimation of Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis Burden in the Three Main Dairy Production Regions of Germany (PraeMAP)" Animals 12, no. 4: 447. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12040447

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