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Article

Livestock Depredation by Leopards and Tigers Near Bardia National Park, Nepal

1
Central Department of Zoology, Institute of Science and Technology, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu 44618, Nepal
2
Nepal Zoological Society, Kathmandu 44618, Nepal
3
Global Wildlife Conservation Center, State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, New York, NY 13210, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Peter Murray and Benjamin Allen
Animals 2021, 11(7), 1896; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11071896
Received: 22 April 2021 / Revised: 30 May 2021 / Accepted: 10 June 2021 / Published: 25 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Wildlife)
People in rural Nepal are experiencing increased livestock depredations from large carnivores; however, limited information is available on factors influencing livestock depredations. We quantified potential factors influencing livestock depredations by leopards (Panthera pardus) and tigers (P. tigris) in and near Bardia National Park (BNP), Nepal. Drivers of carnivore depredations of livestock were influenced by carnivore species, animal husbandry practices, season, and deterrent technique. Leopards killed more livestock than tigers, and the likelihood of livestock depredations was not affected by the number of livestock owned or preventative measures used to reduce depredations.
Wildlife attacks on livestock near human settlements are increasing due to the proximity of humans to protected areas. These attacks are often severe due to depredations of livestock adversely affecting the livelihoods of people. The nature of carnivore depredations on livestock can differ based on the carnivore species, animal husbandry practices, season, and deterrent technique. We surveyed people living near Bardia National Park (BNP), Nepal, to compare hoofed livestock depredations by leopards (Panthera pardus) and tigers (P. tigris) near (<1 km) and far (>1 km) from this protected area. Overall, 1476 hoofed livestock were reportedly depredated by leopards, and 209 by tigers, during 2015–2019. The number of hoofed livestock killed by leopards each season was, at least, 86% higher than the number killed by tigers. More livestock were killed at BNP irrespective of carnivore deterrent techniques used. Due to severe effects created by livestock depredations near BNP, we recommend using more efficacious deterrent techniques when practical, in addition to improved livestock husbandry practices such as night penning. View Full-Text
Keywords: carnivore; livestock depredation; leopard; protected area; tiger carnivore; livestock depredation; leopard; protected area; tiger
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sijapati, R.K.; Sharma, H.P.; Sharma, S.; Subedi, J.R.; Belant, J.L. Livestock Depredation by Leopards and Tigers Near Bardia National Park, Nepal. Animals 2021, 11, 1896. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11071896

AMA Style

Sijapati RK, Sharma HP, Sharma S, Subedi JR, Belant JL. Livestock Depredation by Leopards and Tigers Near Bardia National Park, Nepal. Animals. 2021; 11(7):1896. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11071896

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sijapati, Raj Kumar, Hari Prasad Sharma, Sandhya Sharma, Janak Raj Subedi, and Jerrold L. Belant. 2021. "Livestock Depredation by Leopards and Tigers Near Bardia National Park, Nepal" Animals 11, no. 7: 1896. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11071896

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