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Article

No Observed Adverse Effects on Health Were Detected in Adult Beagle Dogs When Fed a High-Calcium Diet for 40 Weeks

1
WALTHAM Petcare Science Institute, Melton Mowbray, Leicestershire LE14 4RT, UK
2
Renfrew Imaging, Grove Road, Bladon, Woodstock OX20 1RD, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giacomo Biagi
Animals 2021, 11(6), 1799; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11061799
Received: 9 April 2021 / Revised: 4 June 2021 / Accepted: 11 June 2021 / Published: 16 June 2021
Calcium (Ca) is an essential mineral that plays a vital role in many bodily functions. There is evidence that high levels of dietary Ca for puppies and growing dogs can result in adverse growth and health effects, with certain breeds and dog size categories being most susceptible, for example, large breed sizes or beagles. Until recently, little was known about the health consequences of high Ca diets to adult dog, however, a study in the large sized breed Labrador retriever found no adverse health consequences when feeding diets containing levels of Ca near maximum levels set by pet food regulators (2.5 g per 100 g dry matter) for 40 weeks. This current study fed a similar high Ca diet to adult beagles, a medium sized breed for 40 weeks and monitored the dogs’ health using an extensive suite of health parameters. All dogs remained healthy and did not display any clinically relevant signs of adverse health relating to diet at any point during or following completion of the study.
The implications of long-term high calcium (Ca) intake are well documented in growing dogs and in adult dogs of large breed size, however, the consequences on other breeds and breed sizes are yet to be determined. Eighteen neutered adult beagles, nine males and nine females aged 1.4–4.4 years, were randomized to control or test diets providing in g∙4184 kJ−1 (1000 kcal−1): 1.44 and 7.19 total Ca balanced with 1.05 and 4.25 total phosphorus, respectively, for 40 weeks. Health parameters, ultrasound scans, radiographs, glomerular filtration rate, and mineral balance were measured at eight-week intervals. All dogs remained healthy with no measured evidence of orthopedic, urinary, or renal disease. The test diet resulted in a 5.2 fold increase in fecal Ca excretion. Apparent Ca digestibility (%) and Ca balance (g/d) did not significantly (p > 0.05) change from baseline in the test diet group, although dogs displayed a positive Ca balance (maximum at week 8, 1.11 g/d with 95% CI (0.41, 1.80)) before a neutral Ca balance was restored at week 32. Despite an initial positive Ca balance, we can conclude that no measurable adverse health effects were observed as a result of the test diet fed in this study in beagles over a period of 40 weeks. View Full-Text
Keywords: canine; nutrition; phosphorus; calcium: phosphorus ratio; mineral balance canine; nutrition; phosphorus; calcium: phosphorus ratio; mineral balance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Atwal, J.; Stockman, J.; Gilham, M.; Allaway, D.; Renfrew, H.; Bakke, A.M.; Watson, P. No Observed Adverse Effects on Health Were Detected in Adult Beagle Dogs When Fed a High-Calcium Diet for 40 Weeks. Animals 2021, 11, 1799. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11061799

AMA Style

Atwal J, Stockman J, Gilham M, Allaway D, Renfrew H, Bakke AM, Watson P. No Observed Adverse Effects on Health Were Detected in Adult Beagle Dogs When Fed a High-Calcium Diet for 40 Weeks. Animals. 2021; 11(6):1799. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11061799

Chicago/Turabian Style

Atwal, Jujhar, Jonathan Stockman, Matthew Gilham, David Allaway, Helen Renfrew, Anne M. Bakke, and Phillip Watson. 2021. "No Observed Adverse Effects on Health Were Detected in Adult Beagle Dogs When Fed a High-Calcium Diet for 40 Weeks" Animals 11, no. 6: 1799. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11061799

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