Next Article in Journal
Conflicts with Wolves Can Originate from Their Parent Packs
Previous Article in Journal
No Observed Adverse Effects on Health Were Detected in Adult Beagle Dogs When Fed a High-Calcium Diet for 40 Weeks
Review

Summer Is Coming! Tackling Ocean Warming in Atlantic Salmon Cage Farming

1
ECOMARE, CESAM—Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
2
Nofima AS, P.O. Box 6122, NO-9291 Tromsø, Norway
3
UCIBIO—Applied Molecular Biosciences Unit, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2021, 11(6), 1800; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11061800
Received: 11 March 2021 / Revised: 11 June 2021 / Accepted: 14 June 2021 / Published: 16 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Aquatic Animals)
Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) has become a commodity worldwide. The culture of Atlantic salmon is by far the most well-developed branch of marine finfish aquaculture, with this species ranking among the top ten most highly produced in global aquaculture. While Atlantic salmon has been commonly farmed in sea cages located in colder waters (e.g., in Norway, Chile and Tasmania), these regions can experience the negative impacts of heat waves that push seawater temperature above values tolerated by this species. These climate-change-driven shifts in water temperature can be associated with mass mortality events and urgent actions are needed to cope with a changing ocean. This paper reviews the thermal limits of adult Atlantic salmon and lists the negative effects driven by heat stress. We highlight how biotechnology and the genetic diversity of wild populations may help producers to tackle this challenge. Selective breeding programs and other more advanced biotechnological solutions (e.g., gene editing) may play a key role in this quest to produce new strains of Atlantic salmon that more readily tolerate higher water temperatures, without compromising productivity and profitability.
Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) cage farming has traditionally been located at higher latitudes where cold seawater temperatures favor this practice. However, these regions can be impacted by ocean warming and heat waves that push seawater temperature beyond the thermo-tolerance limits of this species. As more mass mortality events are reported every year due to abnormal sea temperatures, the Atlantic salmon cage aquaculture industry acknowledges the need to adapt to a changing ocean. This paper reviews adult Atlantic salmon thermal tolerance limits, as well as the deleterious eco-physiological consequences of heat stress, with emphasis on how it negatively affects sea cage aquaculture production cycles. Biotechnological solutions targeting the phenotypic plasticity of Atlantic salmon and its genetic diversity, particularly that of its southernmost populations at the limit of its natural zoogeographic distribution, are discussed. Some of these solutions include selective breeding programs, which may play a key role in this quest for a more thermo-tolerant strain of Atlantic salmon that may help the cage aquaculture industry to adapt to climate uncertainties more rapidly, without compromising profitability. Omics technologies and precision breeding, along with cryopreservation breakthroughs, are also part of the available toolbox that includes other solutions that can allow cage farmers to continue to produce Atlantic salmon in the warmer waters of the oceans of tomorrow. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate change; heat stress; phenotypic plasticity; Salmo salar; thermal tolerance climate change; heat stress; phenotypic plasticity; Salmo salar; thermal tolerance
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Calado, R.; Mota, V.C.; Madeira, D.; Leal, M.C. Summer Is Coming! Tackling Ocean Warming in Atlantic Salmon Cage Farming. Animals 2021, 11, 1800. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11061800

AMA Style

Calado R, Mota VC, Madeira D, Leal MC. Summer Is Coming! Tackling Ocean Warming in Atlantic Salmon Cage Farming. Animals. 2021; 11(6):1800. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11061800

Chicago/Turabian Style

Calado, Ricardo, Vasco C. Mota, Diana Madeira, and Miguel C. Leal 2021. "Summer Is Coming! Tackling Ocean Warming in Atlantic Salmon Cage Farming" Animals 11, no. 6: 1800. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11061800

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop