Pain Management in Farm Animals: Focus on Cattle, Sheep and Pigs
Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Université de Montréal, 3200 Rue Sicotte, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC J2S 2M2, Canada
Veterinary Clinical Sciences Institute, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Universidad Austral de Chile, Independencia 631, Valdivia 5110566, Chile
Animal Welfare Science and Bioethics Centre, School of Veterinary Science, Tāwharau Ora, Massey University, Palmerston North 4472, New Zealand
Global Animal Welfare and Training, Charles River, Wilmington, MA 01887, USA
Department of Pathobiology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alison Small
Received: 28 April 2021
Revised: 18 May 2021
Accepted: 19 May 2021
Published: 21 May 2021
Pain causes behavioral, autonomic and neuroendocrine changes and is a common cause of animal welfare compromise in farm animals. These recommendations focus on cattle, sheep, and pigs, and present the implications of unmanaged pain in terms of animal welfare and ethical perspectives, and its challenges and misconceptions. We provide an overview of pain management including assessment and treatment applied to the most common husbandry procedures, and recommendations to improve animal welfare in these species.