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Pain Management in Farm Animals: Focus on Cattle, Sheep and Pigs

1
Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Université de Montréal, 3200 Rue Sicotte, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC J2S 2M2, Canada
2
Veterinary Clinical Sciences Institute, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Universidad Austral de Chile, Independencia 631, Valdivia 5110566, Chile
3
Animal Welfare Science and Bioethics Centre, School of Veterinary Science, Tāwharau Ora, Massey University, Palmerston North 4472, New Zealand
4
Global Animal Welfare and Training, Charles River, Wilmington, MA 01887, USA
5
Department of Pathobiology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alison Small
Animals 2021, 11(6), 1483; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11061483
Received: 28 April 2021 / Revised: 18 May 2021 / Accepted: 19 May 2021 / Published: 21 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pain Mitigation for Farmed Livestock)
Pain causes behavioral, autonomic and neuroendocrine changes and is a common cause of animal welfare compromise in farm animals. These recommendations focus on cattle, sheep, and pigs, and present the implications of unmanaged pain in terms of animal welfare and ethical perspectives, and its challenges and misconceptions. We provide an overview of pain management including assessment and treatment applied to the most common husbandry procedures, and recommendations to improve animal welfare in these species.
Pain causes behavioral, autonomic, and neuroendocrine changes and is a common cause of animal welfare compromise in farm animals. Current societal and ethical concerns demand better agricultural practices and improved welfare for food animals. These guidelines focus on cattle, sheep, and pigs, and present the implications of pain in terms of animal welfare and ethical perspectives, and its challenges and misconceptions. We provide an overview of pain management including assessment and treatment applied to the most common husbandry procedures, and recommendations to improve animal welfare in these species. A cost-benefit analysis of pain mitigation is discussed for food animals as well as the use of pain scoring systems for pain assessment in these species. Several recommendations are provided related to husbandry practices that could mitigate pain and improve farm animal welfare. This includes pain assessment as one of the indicators of animal welfare, the use of artificial intelligence for automated methods and research, and the need for better/appropriate legislation, regulations, and recommendations for pain relief during routine and husbandry procedures. View Full-Text
Keywords: analgesia; animal welfare; cattle; cost-benefit; ethics; pain; pig; sheep analgesia; animal welfare; cattle; cost-benefit; ethics; pain; pig; sheep
MDPI and ACS Style

Steagall, P.V.; Bustamante, H.; Johnson, C.B.; Turner, P.V. Pain Management in Farm Animals: Focus on Cattle, Sheep and Pigs. Animals 2021, 11, 1483. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11061483

AMA Style

Steagall PV, Bustamante H, Johnson CB, Turner PV. Pain Management in Farm Animals: Focus on Cattle, Sheep and Pigs. Animals. 2021; 11(6):1483. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11061483

Chicago/Turabian Style

Steagall, Paulo V., Hedie Bustamante, Craig B. Johnson, and Patricia V. Turner. 2021. "Pain Management in Farm Animals: Focus on Cattle, Sheep and Pigs" Animals 11, no. 6: 1483. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11061483

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