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Correction published on 6 December 2021, see Animals 2021, 11(12), 3474.
Article

Physiological and Clinical Responses in Pigs in Relation to Plasma Concentrations during Anesthesia with Dexmedetomidine, Tiletamine, Zolazepam, and Butorphanol

Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Nélida Fernández
Animals 2021, 11(6), 1482; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11061482
Received: 31 March 2021 / Revised: 16 May 2021 / Accepted: 17 May 2021 / Published: 21 May 2021 / Corrected: 6 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laboratory Animals)
Reliable protocols are needed for short-term anesthesia in pigs. The study’s aim is to identify an anesthetic procedure that, without the use of sophisticated equipment, ensures an acceptable depth and length of anesthesia, a regular spontaneous breathing pattern, and a stable hemodynamic condition for the animal. A total of 12 pigs were given a single intramuscular injection of dexmedetomidine, tiletamine, zolazepam, and butorphanol. To investigate the possibility of prolonging the anesthesia, six of the pigs also received an intravenous dose of the drug combination after one hour. Physiological and clinical responses and drug plasma concentrations were examined. The main results suggest that intramuscular administration of the drug combination provides up to two hours of anesthesia with stable physiological parameters and an acceptable level of analgesia. An intravenous administration of one-third of the original dosage prolonged the anesthesia for another 30 min. Since the pigs were able to breathe spontaneously, none of them were intubated. The study also provides new information about each drug’s plasma concentrations and the impact of the drug combination in pigs. This technique can be used to perform nonsurgical operations or transports when short-term anesthesia is required.
Reliable protocols for short-term anesthetics are essential to safeguard animal welfare during medical investigations. The aim of the study was to assess the adequacy and reliability of an anesthetic protocol and to evaluate physiological and clinical responses, in relation to the drug plasma concentrations, for pigs undergoing short-term anesthesia. A second aim was to see whether an intravenous dosage could prolong the anesthesia. The anesthesia was induced by an intramuscular injection of dexmedetomidine, tiletamine-zolazepam, and butorphanol in 12 pigs. In six of the pigs, a repeated injection intravenously of one-third of the initial dose was given after one hour. The physiological and clinical effects from induction to recovery were examined. Plasma concentrations of the drugs were analyzed and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. Each drug’s absorption and time to maximal concentration were rapid. All pigs were able to maintain spontaneous respiration. The route of administration did not alter the half-life of the drug. The results suggest that intramuscular administration of the four-drug combination provides up to two hours of anesthesia with stable physiological parameters and an acceptable level of analgesia while maintaining spontaneous respiration. A repeated intravenous injection may be used to extend the time of anesthesia by 30 min. View Full-Text
Keywords: animal welfare; pharmacokinetic; swine; transportation; short term animal welfare; pharmacokinetic; swine; transportation; short term
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rydén, A.; Jensen-Waern, M.; Nyman, G.; Olsén, L. Physiological and Clinical Responses in Pigs in Relation to Plasma Concentrations during Anesthesia with Dexmedetomidine, Tiletamine, Zolazepam, and Butorphanol. Animals 2021, 11, 1482. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11061482

AMA Style

Rydén A, Jensen-Waern M, Nyman G, Olsén L. Physiological and Clinical Responses in Pigs in Relation to Plasma Concentrations during Anesthesia with Dexmedetomidine, Tiletamine, Zolazepam, and Butorphanol. Animals. 2021; 11(6):1482. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11061482

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rydén, Anneli, Marianne Jensen-Waern, Görel Nyman, and Lena Olsén. 2021. "Physiological and Clinical Responses in Pigs in Relation to Plasma Concentrations during Anesthesia with Dexmedetomidine, Tiletamine, Zolazepam, and Butorphanol" Animals 11, no. 6: 1482. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11061482

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