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Article

Ensiling Process in Commercial Bales of Horticultural By-Products from Artichoke and Broccoli

1
Departamento de Tecnología Agroalimentaria, Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche, 03312 Alicante, Spain
2
Facultad de Veterinaria, Medicina y Ciencia Animal, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, Mérida 97100, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2020, 10(5), 831; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10050831
Received: 9 April 2020 / Revised: 7 May 2020 / Accepted: 8 May 2020 / Published: 11 May 2020
Artichoke and broccoli crops are widespread throughout the world, mainly in the Mediterranean region. After artichoke harvests and industrial processing of artichoke and broccoli, large amounts of by-products are generated. The use of these alternative and cheaper feedstuffs in ruminants’ diets would reduce waste caused by the agri-food industry, disposal costs, and the land and natural resources used in animal feed production, contributing to the circular economy. Because of the high water content and the seasonality of these feedstuffs, ensiling might be a technology to preserve its nutritional quality for a long time, and this must be considered and studied at commercial scale. This paper looks into the viability of ensiling broccoli and artichoke by-products as commercial round bale silos (300 kg), their shelf life, and their suitability for ruminant feeding. The three silage by-products are stabilised on day 30. The high microbial quality and the appropriate nutritional composition at final stage (day 200) make them suitable for inclusion in ruminant diet, in combination with other energy and protein sources over a long period after the crop season.
Wastes from artichoke and broccoli crops and cannery industries represent an environmental problem. A viable option to this problem is ensiling them for use as ruminants feed. The aim of this study was to characterise the ensiling process of broccoli and artichoke by-products and assess their suitability to be part of the ruminant diet, as well their minimum shelf life. Twenty-one commercial round bale silos (300 kg and 0.64 m3) of each by-product were made. Samples were analysed at days 0, 7, 15, 30, 60, and 200 to determine microbial populations, fermentation metabolites, nutritional components, and phytosanitary residues. Feedstuffs showed good suitability for ensiling, and stabilisation was achieved on day 30. The variables with the greatest significant differences among sampling times were microbial populations and fermentative components. There were no important dry matter losses, and some significant differences were observed in the nutritional composition, especially in crude protein and fibrous fractions, but they were not relevant for the loss of nutritional quality of silages. The phytosanitary residues determined on day 200 were below the maximum residue limits set by European legislation. So, ensiling these by-products in commercial round bale silos is a suitable and profitable technique that allows their preservation for a long time (200 days). View Full-Text
Keywords: Silage; feedstuff; nutritive value; ruminant feeding; alternative feeds Silage; feedstuff; nutritive value; ruminant feeding; alternative feeds
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MDPI and ACS Style

Monllor, P.; Romero, G.; Muelas, R.; Sandoval-Castro, C.A.; Sendra, E.; Díaz, J.R. Ensiling Process in Commercial Bales of Horticultural By-Products from Artichoke and Broccoli. Animals 2020, 10, 831. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10050831

AMA Style

Monllor P, Romero G, Muelas R, Sandoval-Castro CA, Sendra E, Díaz JR. Ensiling Process in Commercial Bales of Horticultural By-Products from Artichoke and Broccoli. Animals. 2020; 10(5):831. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10050831

Chicago/Turabian Style

Monllor, Paula, Gema Romero, Raquel Muelas, Carlos A. Sandoval-Castro, Esther Sendra, and José R. Díaz 2020. "Ensiling Process in Commercial Bales of Horticultural By-Products from Artichoke and Broccoli" Animals 10, no. 5: 831. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10050831

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