Antimicrobial Resistance in Farm Animals in Brazil: An Update Overview
Departamento de Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói 24210-130, Brazil
Instituto de Microbiologia Paulo de Góes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-902, Brazil
Centro Estadual de Pesquisa em Sanidade Animal, Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Niterói 24120-191, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 February 2020 / Revised: 10 March 2020 / Accepted: 23 March 2020 / Published: 26 March 2020
Beyond their use of treating human and animal diseases, antimicrobial agents have also been employed in animal feeding as “growth promoters”, being administrated at low doses throughout the husbandry period, and leading to beneficial effects, mainly for large-scale production. However, the consequent selective pressure has helped to increase antimicrobial resistance frequencies in isolates from animals globally. Brazil is a major food producer and exporter; therefore, it is of great value to look at the panorama of bacterial resistance associated with farm animals. Since 1998, many drugs have been prohibited from being used as growth promoters in Brazil. However, neither data on the prophylactic and therapeutic use of antimicrobial agents in farms, nor results of contemporary and integrated surveillance programs regarding antimicrobial resistance associated with food production animals, are still publicly available. This review aims to update and discuss the available Brazilian data on this topic emphasizing legal aspects, occurrence, and genetics of the resistance reported by studies published since 2009, focusing on producing animals and derived foods with the most global public health impact. Data here compiled may be useful to monitor and evaluate the local situation and serve as a basis for establishing parameters for the future.