Next Article in Journal
Interplay between Neuroendocrine Biomarkers and Gut Microbiota in Dogs Supplemented with Grape Proanthocyanidins: Results of Dietary Intervention Study
Previous Article in Journal
Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Lauric Acid on Lactation Function, Mammary Gland Development, and Serum Lipid Metabolites in Lactating Mice
Open AccessReview

The Influence of Anaesthetic Drugs on the Laryngeal Motion in Dogs: A Systematic Review

Department of Clinical Diagnostics and Services, Section of Anaesthesiology, Vetsuisse Faculty University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 260, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Section of Anaesthesiology, Vetsuisse Faculty University of Bern, Hochschulstrasse 6, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2020, 10(3), 530;
Received: 6 January 2020 / Revised: 10 March 2020 / Accepted: 16 March 2020 / Published: 22 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Companion Animals)
Laryngeal paralysis is secondary to a loss of normal function of the larynx. Older dogs are particularly affected, with normal breathing becoming difficult. A successful diagnosis typically relies on the visualisation of either, complete, or partially absent, laryngeal movements. The use of anaesthesia drugs to provide sedation and stress relief is most commonly necessary during the diagnosis of laryngeal paralysis. While, the excessive administration of anaesthesia drugs may result in absent movements, the ideal anaesthesia regime remains unknown, and the use of sedation is questionable, given the potential for absent laryngeal movements, even in healthy dogs. In this systematic review, we found a potential benefit from using sedation during the evaluation of laryngeal function when compared to injectable anaesthetics only. The respiratory stimulant doxapram was effective in differentiating normal dogs from dogs with laryngeal paralysis but has associated safety hazards.
Anaesthetic drugs are commonly used during the evaluation of laryngeal function in dogs. The aim of this review was to systematically analyse the literature describing the effects of anaesthetic drugs and doxapram on laryngeal motion in dogs and to determine which drug regime provides the best conditions for laryngeal examination. PubMed, Google Scholar, and EMBASE databases were used for the literature search up to November 2019. Relevant search terms included laryngeal motion, anaesthetic drugs and dogs. Studies were scored based on their level of evidence (LoE), according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine, and the quality was assessed using the risk-of-bias tool and SIGN-checklist. In healthy dogs, premedication before laryngeal examination provided better examination conditions and maintained overall adequate laryngeal motion in 83% of the studies. No difference in laryngeal motion between induction drugs was found in 73% of the studies but the effects in dogs with laryngeal paralysis remain largely unknown. Doxapram increased laryngeal motion in healthy dogs without serious side effects, but intubation was necessary for some dogs with laryngeal paralysis. Methodological characteristics varied considerably between studies, including the technique and timing of evaluation, number of assessors, study design, drug dose, combinations, route and speed of administration. View Full-Text
Keywords: laryngeal motion; anaesthesia; dogs; doxapram laryngeal motion; anaesthesia; dogs; doxapram
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Ranninger, E.; Kantyka, M.; Bektas, R.N. The Influence of Anaesthetic Drugs on the Laryngeal Motion in Dogs: A Systematic Review. Animals 2020, 10, 530.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop