The Time Course of Inflammatory Biomarkers Following a One-Hour Exercise Bout in Canines: A Pilot Study
Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
Probiotech International, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC J2S 8L2, Canada
VetDiet, Montreal, QC H1B 1C9, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 February 2020 / Revised: 3 March 2020 / Accepted: 10 March 2020 / Published: 13 March 2020
The purpose of this study is to generate preliminary data on the inflammatory effects of an hour of hunting in dogs. Four basset hounds were set out to find a scent and freely adopted running or walking over wooded terrain for one hour. Blood samples were obtained before exercise and 1, 2, 4, 6, and 10 h after the end of the exercise for analysis of markers of inflammation (prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), nitric oxide (NO), interleukin 1β (IL-1β)), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)), and inflammation resolution (resolvin D1 (RvD1)). There was an increase in inflammation one hour after the exercise, shown by a significant increase in PGE2. Following the peak, PGE2 steadily declined at the same time as RvD1 increased, with RvD1 peaking at six hours. This pilot study provides evidence that dogs that undergo an hour of hunt exercise experience transient inflammation that peaks one hour after the end of exercise; inflammation resolution peaks six hours after the end of exercise. Future studies should seek to further understand the distinct and combined roles of PGE2 and RvD1 in dog adaptation to exercise stress.