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Open AccessArticle

Rumen Methanogenesis, Rumen Fermentation, and Microbial Community Response to Nitroethane, 2-Nitroethanol, and 2-Nitro-1-Propanol: An In Vitro Study

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
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Animals 2020, 10(3), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030479
Received: 7 February 2020 / Revised: 1 March 2020 / Accepted: 5 March 2020 / Published: 13 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue In Vitro Digestibility in Animal Nutritional Studies)
The present study comparatively investigates the inhibitory difference of nitroethane (NE), 2-nitroethanol (NEOH), and 2-nitro-1-propanol (NPOH) on in vitro rumen fermentation, microbial populations, and coenzyme activities associated with methanogenesis. The results showed that both NE and NEOH were more effective in reducing ruminal methane (CH4) production than NPOH. This work provides evidence that NE, NEOH, and NPOH were able to inhibit methanogen population and dramatically decrease methyl-coenzyme M reductase gene expression and the content of coenzymes F420 and F430 with different magnitudes in order to reduce ruminal CH4 production.
Nitroethane (NE), 2-nitroethanol (NEOH), and 2-nitro-1-propanol (NPOH) were comparatively examined to determine their inhibitory actions on rumen fermentation and methanogenesis in vitro. Fermentation characteristics, CH4 and total gas production, and coenzyme contents were determined at 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h incubation time, and the populations of ruminal microbiota were analyzed by real-time PCR at 72 h incubation time. The addition of NE, NEOH, and NPOH slowed down in vitro rumen fermentation and reduced the proportion of molar CH4 by 96.7%, 96.7%, and 41.7%, respectively (p < 0.01). The content of coenzymes F420 and F430 and the relative expression of the mcrA gene declined with the supplementation of NE, NEOH, and NPOH in comparison with the control (p < 0.01). The addition of NE, NEOH, and NPOH decreased total volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and acetate (p < 0.05), but had no effect on propionate concentration (p > 0.05). Real-time PCR results showed that the relative abundance of total methanogens, Methanobacteriales, Methanococcales, and Fibrobacter succinogenes were reduced by NE, NEOH, and NPOH (p < 0.05). In addition, the nitro-degradation rates in culture fluids were ranked as NEOH (−0.088) > NE (−0.069) > NPOH (−0.054). In brief, the results firstly provided evidence that NE, NEOH, and NPOH were able to decrease methanogen abundance and dramatically decrease mcrA gene expression and coenzyme F420 and F430 contents with different magnitudes to reduce ruminal CH4 production. View Full-Text
Keywords: nitrocompounds; methanogenesis; rumen fermentation; microbial community; coenzyme nitrocompounds; methanogenesis; rumen fermentation; microbial community; coenzyme
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Zhang, Z.; Wang, Y.; Si, X.; Cao, Z.; Li, S.; Yang, H. Rumen Methanogenesis, Rumen Fermentation, and Microbial Community Response to Nitroethane, 2-Nitroethanol, and 2-Nitro-1-Propanol: An In Vitro Study. Animals 2020, 10, 479.

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