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Open AccessArticle

Reconstruction and Analysis of Cattle Metabolic Networks in Normal and Acidosis Rumen Tissue

1
Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Animal Science and Food Technology, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Mollasani, Ahvaz 6341773637, Iran
2
Department of Medical Biotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1416753955, Iran
3
School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1416753955, Iran
4
Institute of Bioinformatics, University Medicine Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 8, 17475 Greifswald, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2020, 10(3), 469; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030469
Received: 5 January 2020 / Revised: 21 February 2020 / Accepted: 27 February 2020 / Published: 11 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Farm Animal Gene Exploration)
Economics of feedlot beef production dictate that beef cattle must gain weight at their maximum potential rate; this involves getting them quickly onto a full feed of high fermentable diet which can induce the ruminal acidosis disease. The molecular host mechanisms that occur as a response to the acidosis, are mostly unknown. For answering this question, the rumen epithelial transcriptome in acidosis and control fattening steers were obtained. By RNA sequencing we found the different expression profiles of genes in normal and acidosis induced steers. Then we constructed two metabolic networks for normal and acidosis tissue based on gene expression profile. Our results suggest that rapid shifts to diets rich in fermentable carbohydrates cause an increased concentration of ruminal volatile fatty acids (VFA) and toxins and significant changes in transcriptome profiles and metabolites of rumen epithelial tissue, with negative effects on economic consequences of poor performance and animal health.
The objective of this study was to develop a system-level understanding of acidosis biology. Therefore, the genes expression differences between the normal and acidosis rumen epithelial tissues were first examined using the RNA-seq data in order to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the disease and then their corresponding metabolic networks constructed. A number of 1074 genes, 978 isoforms, 1049 transcription start sites (TSS), 998 coding DNA sequence (CDS) and 2 promoters were identified being differentially expressed in the rumen tissue between the normal and acidosis samples (p < 0.05). The functional analysis of 627 up-regulated genes revealed their involvement in ion transmembrane transport, filament organization, regulation of cell adhesion, regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, ATP binding, glucose transmembrane transporter activity, carbohydrate binding, growth factor binding and cAMP metabolic process. Additionally, 111 differentially expressed enzymes were identified between the rumen epithelial tissue of the normal and acidosis steers with 46 up-regulated and 65 down-regulated ones in the acidosis group. The pathways and reactions analyses associated with the up-regulated enzymes indicate that most of these enzymes are involved in the fatty acid metabolism, biosynthesis of amino acids, pyruvate and carbon metabolism while most of the down-regulated ones are involved in purine and pyrimidine, vitamin B6 and antibiotics metabolisms. The degree distribution of both metabolic networks follows a power-law one, hence displaying a scale-free property. The top 15 hub metabolites were determined in the acidosis metabolic network with most of them involved in the fatty acid oxidation, VFA biosynthesis, amino acid biogenesis and glutathione metabolism which plays an important role in the stress condition. The limitations of this study were low number of animals and using only epithelial tissue (ventral sac) for RNA-seq. View Full-Text
Keywords: bovine ruminal acidosis; transcriptome profile; metabolic network bovine ruminal acidosis; transcriptome profile; metabolic network
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Gholizadeh, M.; Fayazi, J.; Asgari, Y.; Zali, H.; Kaderali, L. Reconstruction and Analysis of Cattle Metabolic Networks in Normal and Acidosis Rumen Tissue. Animals 2020, 10, 469.

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