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Evaluation of the Associative Effects of Rice Straw with Timothy Hay and Corn Grain Using an In Vitro Ruminal Gas Production Technique

Division of Animal and Dairy Sciences, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764, Korea
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors equally contributed to this study.
Animals 2020, 10(2), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10020325
Received: 31 January 2020 / Revised: 14 February 2020 / Accepted: 14 February 2020 / Published: 18 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Nutrition)
Rice straw is a widely used forage source for ruminants in most Asian countries; thus, it is important to accurately estimate its nutritional value. Rice straw is typically fed to the animals along with other ingredients, and the associative effects of the combined ingredients may alter the nutritional value of rice straw. We found associative effects on the ruminal fermentability (gas production kinetics and rumen parameters), especially when rice straw was co-fermented with timothy hay and corn grain. We conclude that the nutritional value of rice straw increases when used with timothy hay and corn grain, due to the associative effects among feeds, which should be considered in diet formulations.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the associative effects of rice straw with timothy hay and corn grain. Using an automated gas production system, in vitro ruminal fermentation was studied for six substrates: 100% rice straw, 100% timothy hay, 100% corn grain, 50% rice straw and 50% timothy hay, 50% rice straw and 50% corn grain, and 50% rice straw, 25% timothy hay, and 25% corn grain. Incubation was performed in three batches with different rumen fluids to assess the in vitro ruminal gas production kinetics and rumen parameters (pH, NH3-N, volatile fatty acid (VFA), and true dry matter digestibility (TDMD)). The associated effects were tested by comparing the observed values of the composited feeds and the weighted means of individual feeds. There was a significant increase in NH3-N when rice straw was fermented with timothy hay, corn grain, or both (p < 0.05). TDMD increased when corn grain was co-fermented, and the total gas and VFA production increased when all three feeds were co-fermented. We conclude that the feed value of rice straw increases when fed to animals along with timothy hay and corn grain. View Full-Text
Keywords: associative effects; in vitro automated gas production system; rice straw associative effects; in vitro automated gas production system; rice straw
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Sun, L.; Lee, M.; Jeon, S.; Seo, S. Evaluation of the Associative Effects of Rice Straw with Timothy Hay and Corn Grain Using an In Vitro Ruminal Gas Production Technique. Animals 2020, 10, 325.

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