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Open AccessArticle

Fermentation Pattern of Several Carbohydrate Sources Incubated in an In Vitro Semicontinuous System with Inocula from Ruminants Given Either Forage or Concentrate-Based Diets

Departamento de Producción Animal y Ciencia de los Alimentos, Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón (IA2), Universidad de Zaragoza-CITA, M. Servet 177, 50013 Zaragoza, Spain
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Animals 2020, 10(2), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10020261
Received: 27 December 2019 / Revised: 30 January 2020 / Accepted: 3 February 2020 / Published: 6 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue In Vitro Digestibility in Animal Nutritional Studies)
A sudden change from a milk/forage diet to a high concentrate diet in young ruminants increases the rate and extent of rumen microbial fermentation, leading to digestive problems, such as acidosis. The magnitude of this effect depends on the nature of the ingredients. Six carbohydrate sources were tested: three cereal grains (barley, maize and brown sorghum), as high starch sources of different availability, and three byproducts (sugarbeet pulp, citrus pulp and wheat bran), as sources of either insoluble or soluble fibre. An in vitro semicontinuous incubation system was used to compare the fermentation pattern of substrates incubated with inocula-simulating concentrate or forage diets, under the pH and liquid outflow rate conditions of intensive feeding systems. The magnitude of microbial fermentation was higher with the concentrate than the forage inoculum, and the drop in pH in the first part of incubation was more profound. Among the substrates, citrus pulp had a greater acidification potential and was fermented at a higher extent, followed by wheat bran and barley. In conclusion, the acidification capacity of substrates plays an important role in the environmental conditions, depending on the type of diet given to the ruminant. This in vitro system allows us to compare the substrates under conditions simulating high-concentrate feeding.
The fermentation pattern of several carbohydrate sources and their interaction with the nature of microbial inoculum was studied. Barley (B), maize (M), sorghum, (S), sugarbeet pulp (BP), citrus pulp (CP) and wheat bran (WB) were tested in an in vitro semicontinuous system maintaining poorly buffered conditions from 0 to 6 h, and being gradually buffered to 6.5 from 8 to 24 h to simulate the rumen pH pattern. Rumen fluid inoculum was obtained from lambs fed with either concentrate and barley straw (CI) or alfalfa hay (FI). The extent of fermentation was higher with CI than FI throughout the incubation (p < 0.05). Among the substrates, S, BP and M maintained the highest pH (p < 0.05), whereas CP recorded the lowest pH with both inocula. Similarly, CP recorded the highest gas volume throughout the incubation, followed by WB and B, and S recorded the lowest volume (p < 0.05). On average, the total volatile fatty acid (VFA), as well as lactic acid concentration, was higher with CP than in the other substrates (p < 0.05). The microbial structure was more affected by the animal donor of inoculum than by the substrate. The in vitro semicontinuous system allows for the study of the rumen environment acidification and substrate microbial fermentation under intensive feeding conditions.
Keywords: cereals; fibrous byproducts; gas volume; pH; volatile fatty acids; in vitro fermentation cereals; fibrous byproducts; gas volume; pH; volatile fatty acids; in vitro fermentation
MDPI and ACS Style

Amanzougarene, Z.; Yuste, S.; Fondevila, M. Fermentation Pattern of Several Carbohydrate Sources Incubated in an In Vitro Semicontinuous System with Inocula from Ruminants Given Either Forage or Concentrate-Based Diets. Animals 2020, 10, 261.

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