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Open AccessArticle

Exploring Additive, Synergistic or Antagonistic Effects of Natural Plant Extracts on In Vitro Beef Feedlot-Type Rumen Microbial Fermentation Conditions

1
Departamento de Ciència Animal i dels Aliments, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Servicio de Nutrición y Bienestar Animal (SNiBA), 08193 Bellaterra, Spain
2
Departamento de Producción Animal, Instituto de Producción Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de la República, Ruta 1 km 42, CP 80100 San José, Uruguay
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Deceased.
Animals 2020, 10(1), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10010173
Received: 22 December 2019 / Revised: 13 January 2020 / Accepted: 14 January 2020 / Published: 20 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue In Vitro Digestibility in Animal Nutritional Studies)
Essential oils (EO) can be used as natural alternatives to in-feed antibiotics. Most EO products in the market are based on a combination of EO or their active molecules but prove of additivity or synergy is lacking. The effect of six EO (tea tree oil—TeTr, oregano oil—Ore, clove bud oil—Clo, thyme oil—Thy, rosemary oil—Ros and sage oil—Sag) and different mixes on in vitro microbial fermentation profile of a feedlot beef cattle type fermentation were evaluated for their additive, synergistic or antagonistic effects. Mixing TeTr with Thy, Ore or Thy + Ore modified rumen microbial fermentation profile, but the size of the effect was similar to that obtained with TeTr alone, suggesting that the effects were not additive. When Thy, Ore or Thy + Ore were mixed with Clo, most effects on rumen fermentation profile disappeared even when TeTr was part of the mix, suggesting an antagonistic interaction of Clo with Thy and Ore. Results do not support the hypothesis of additivity among the EO tested, and antagonistic effects may occur among some of them, at least in a low pH, beef-type fermentation conditions.
Six Essential oils (EO) (tea tree oil—TeTr, oregano oil—Ore, clove bud oil—Clo, thyme oil—Thy, rosemary oil—Ros, and sage oil—Sag) in Experiment 1; and different combinations of selected oils in Experiment 2, were evaluate at four doses in an in vitro microbial fermentation system using ruminal fluid from beef cattle fed a 10:90 straw: Concentrate diet. In Experiment 1, TeTr, Ore, Clo and Thy improved rumen fermentation profile in a direction consistent with better feed utilization. In Experiment 2, TeTr mixed with Thy, Ore, Thy + Ore or Clo at 200 and 400 mg/L increased the molar proportion of propionate and decreased that of acetate, and the acetate to propionate ratio. However, the size of the effect was similar to that obtained with TeTr alone, suggesting that effects were not additive. When Thy, Ore or Thy + Ore where mixed with Clo, most effects on rumen fermentation profile disappeared, suggesting an antagonistic interaction of Clo with Thy and Ore. Results do not support the hypothesis of additivity among the EO tested, and antagonistic effects of Clo mixed with Thy or Ore were demonstrated at least in a low pH, beef-type fermentation conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: essential oils; rumen microbial fermentation; synergies essential oils; rumen microbial fermentation; synergies
MDPI and ACS Style

Fandiño, I.; Fernandez-Turren, G.; Ferret, A.; Moya, D.; Castillejos, L.; Calsamiglia, S. Exploring Additive, Synergistic or Antagonistic Effects of Natural Plant Extracts on In Vitro Beef Feedlot-Type Rumen Microbial Fermentation Conditions. Animals 2020, 10, 173.

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