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Blastocyst-Bearing Sows Display a Dominant Anti-Inflammatory Cytokine Profile Compared to Cyclic Sows at Day 6 of the Cycle

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Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, International Excellence Campus for Higher Education and Research “Campus Mare Nostrum”, University of Murcia, 30071 Murcia, Spain
2
Campus de Ciencias de la Salud, Institute for Biomedical Research of Murcia (IMIB-Arrixaca), 30071 Murcia, Spain
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Department of Biomedical & Clinical Sciences (BKV), BKH/Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Linköping University, 58183 Linköping, Sweden
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CIISA—Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Lisbon, 1649-004 Lisbon, Portugal
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2020, 10(11), 2028; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10112028
Received: 10 September 2020 / Revised: 8 October 2020 / Accepted: 2 November 2020 / Published: 4 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Reproduction)
A proper uterine environment is basic for obtaining optimal embryo transfer outputs in domestic species, including the pig. However, scarce information is available about the uterine immune response of recipient (uninseminated) sows when receiving embryos during embryo transfer. Endometrial cytokine profile is among the main factors regulating uterine receptivity to embryos. In this study, using Luminex MAP® technology, we found important differences in the endometrial production in most of the 16 cytokines analyzed between recipient sows and embryo-bearing (inseminated) sows six days after estrus, with a predominant cytokine anti-inflammatory environment in the embryo-bearing endometria. These observations suggest that insemination components and/or early embryos induce an endometrium immune-tolerant cytokine profile at Day 6 of the cycle. The findings could contribute importantly to design strategies to maximize the reproductive performance of recipients after embryo transfer in swine.
In the context of porcine embryo transfer (ET) technology, understanding the tightly regulated local uterine immune environment is crucial to achieve an adequate interaction between the transferred embryos and the receiving endometrium. However, information is limited on the uterine immune status of cyclic-recipient sows when receiving embryos during ET. The present study postulated that the anti- and proinflammatory cytokine profile 6 days after the onset of estrus differs between endometria from uninseminated cyclic sows and blastocyst-bearing sows. On Day 6 of the cycle, endometrial explants were collected from sows inseminated or not inseminated during the postweaning estrus and cultured for 22 h. The culture medium was then analyzed for the contents of a total of 16 cytokines using Luminex MAP® technology. The results showed important differences in the endometrial production of most cytokines between the sow categories, with a predominant anti-inflammatory environment displayed by the blastocyst-bearing endometria. These findings suggest that sperm, seminal plasma (SP) and/or early embryos modify the uterine environment by inducing an immune-tolerant cytokine profile already visible at Day 6. Whether the SP or some of its active components may help to develop strategies to maximize the reproductive performance of recipients after ET needs further investigation. View Full-Text
Keywords: endometrium; explants; cytokines; embryo transfer; maternal immune response; pig endometrium; explants; cytokines; embryo transfer; maternal immune response; pig
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MDPI and ACS Style

Parrilla, I.; Martinez, C.A.; Cambra, J.M.; Lucas, X.; Ferreira-Dias, G.; Rodriguez-Martinez, H.; Cuello, C.; Gil, M.A.; Martinez, E.A. Blastocyst-Bearing Sows Display a Dominant Anti-Inflammatory Cytokine Profile Compared to Cyclic Sows at Day 6 of the Cycle. Animals 2020, 10, 2028. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10112028

AMA Style

Parrilla I, Martinez CA, Cambra JM, Lucas X, Ferreira-Dias G, Rodriguez-Martinez H, Cuello C, Gil MA, Martinez EA. Blastocyst-Bearing Sows Display a Dominant Anti-Inflammatory Cytokine Profile Compared to Cyclic Sows at Day 6 of the Cycle. Animals. 2020; 10(11):2028. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10112028

Chicago/Turabian Style

Parrilla, Inmaculada, Cristina A. Martinez, Josep M. Cambra, Xiomara Lucas, Graça Ferreira-Dias, Heriberto Rodriguez-Martinez, Cristina Cuello, Maria A. Gil, and Emilio A. Martinez. 2020. "Blastocyst-Bearing Sows Display a Dominant Anti-Inflammatory Cytokine Profile Compared to Cyclic Sows at Day 6 of the Cycle" Animals 10, no. 11: 2028. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10112028

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