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Article

Contribution of the Locus of Heat Resistance to Growth and Survival of Escherichia coli at Alkaline pH and at Alkaline pH in the Presence of Chlorine

1
Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, 4-10 Ag/For Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2P5, Canada
2
Department of Biological Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E9, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sylvie Chevalier
Microorganisms 2021, 9(4), 701; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040701
Received: 15 February 2021 / Revised: 24 March 2021 / Accepted: 25 March 2021 / Published: 28 March 2021
The locus of heat resistance (LHR) confers resistance to extreme heat, chlorine and oxidative stress in Escherichia coli. This study aimed to determine the function of the LHR in maintaining bacterial cell envelope homeostasis, the regulation of the genes comprising the LHR and the contribution of the LHR to alkaline pH response. The presence of the LHR did not affect the activity of the Cpx two-component regulatory system in E. coli, which was measured to quantify cell envelope stress. The LHR did not alter E. coli MG1655 growth rate in the range of pH 6.9 to 9.2. However, RT-qPCR results indicated that the expression of the LHR was elevated at pH 8.0 when CpxR was absent. The LHR did not improve survival of E. coli MG1655 at extreme alkaline pH (pH = 11.0 to 11.2) but improved survival at pH 11.0 in the presence of chlorine. Therefore, we conclude that the LHR confers resistance to extreme alkaline pH in the presence of oxidizing agents. Resistance to alkaline pH is regulated by an endogenous mechanism, including the Cpx envelope stress response, whereas the LHR confers resistance to extreme alkaline pH only in the presence of additional stress such as chlorine. View Full-Text
Keywords: Escherichia coli; locus of heat resistance; Cpx two-component regulatory system; alkaline pH response Escherichia coli; locus of heat resistance; Cpx two-component regulatory system; alkaline pH response
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhu, T.; Wang, Z.; McMullen, L.M.; Raivio, T.; Simpson, D.J.; Gänzle, M.G. Contribution of the Locus of Heat Resistance to Growth and Survival of Escherichia coli at Alkaline pH and at Alkaline pH in the Presence of Chlorine. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 701. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040701

AMA Style

Zhu T, Wang Z, McMullen LM, Raivio T, Simpson DJ, Gänzle MG. Contribution of the Locus of Heat Resistance to Growth and Survival of Escherichia coli at Alkaline pH and at Alkaline pH in the Presence of Chlorine. Microorganisms. 2021; 9(4):701. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040701

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhu, Tongbo, Zhiying Wang, Lynn M. McMullen, Tracy Raivio, David J. Simpson, and Michael G. Gänzle 2021. "Contribution of the Locus of Heat Resistance to Growth and Survival of Escherichia coli at Alkaline pH and at Alkaline pH in the Presence of Chlorine" Microorganisms 9, no. 4: 701. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040701

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