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Article

A Transcriptomic Atlas of the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Laccaria bicolor

1
Institut National de Recherche pour d’Agriculture, d’Alimentation et l’Environnement (INRAE), UMR1136 Interactions Arbres/Microorganismes, INRAE Grand Est-Nancy, Université de Lorraine, 54280 Champenoux, France
2
Research Groups Microbiology and Plant Genetics, Department of Bioengineering Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, 1050 Brussel, Belgium
3
Department of Plant Microbe Interactions, Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, 50829 Cologne, Germany
4
Institute for Plant Sciences, University of Cologne, 50829 Cologne, Germany
5
Centre for Environmental Sciences, Environmental Biology, Hasselt University, 3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Equally contributed.
Academic Editors: Valentina Fiorilli and Paola Bonfante
Microorganisms 2021, 9(12), 2612; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9122612
Received: 30 October 2021 / Revised: 10 December 2021 / Accepted: 11 December 2021 / Published: 17 December 2021
Trees are able to colonize, establish and survive in a wide range of soils through associations with ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi. Proper functioning of EcM fungi implies the differentiation of structures within the fungal colony. A symbiotic structure is dedicated to nutrient exchange and the extramatricular mycelium explores soil for nutrients. Eventually, basidiocarps develop to assure last stages of sexual reproduction. The aim of this study is to understand how an EcM fungus uses its gene set to support functional differentiation and development of specialized morphological structures. We examined the transcriptomes of Laccaria bicolor under a series of experimental setups, including the growth with Populus tremula x alba at different developmental stages, basidiocarps and free-living mycelium, under various conditions of N, P and C supply. In particular, N supply induced global transcriptional changes, whereas responses to P supply seemed to be independent from it. Symbiosis development with poplar is characterized by transcriptional waves. Basidiocarp development shares transcriptional signatures with other basidiomycetes. Overlaps in transcriptional responses of L. bicolor hyphae to a host plant and N/C supply next to co-regulation of genes in basidiocarps and mature mycorrhiza were detected. Few genes are induced in a single condition only, but functional and morphological differentiation rather involves fine tuning of larger gene sets. Overall, this transcriptomic atlas builds a reference to study the function and stability of EcM symbiosis in distinct conditions using L. bicolor as a model and indicates both similarities and differences with other ectomycorrhizal fungi, allowing researchers to distinguish conserved processes such as basidiocarp development from nutrient homeostasis. View Full-Text
Keywords: ectomycorrhiza; symbiosis; carpophore; nitrogen; phosphorus; transcriptome ectomycorrhiza; symbiosis; carpophore; nitrogen; phosphorus; transcriptome
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ruytinx, J.; Miyauchi, S.; Hartmann-Wittulsky, S.; de Freitas Pereira, M.; Guinet, F.; Churin, J.-L.; Put, C.; Le Tacon, F.; Veneault-Fourrey, C.; Martin, F.; Kohler, A. A Transcriptomic Atlas of the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Laccaria bicolor. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 2612. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9122612

AMA Style

Ruytinx J, Miyauchi S, Hartmann-Wittulsky S, de Freitas Pereira M, Guinet F, Churin J-L, Put C, Le Tacon F, Veneault-Fourrey C, Martin F, Kohler A. A Transcriptomic Atlas of the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Laccaria bicolor. Microorganisms. 2021; 9(12):2612. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9122612

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ruytinx, Joske, Shingo Miyauchi, Sebastian Hartmann-Wittulsky, Maíra de Freitas Pereira, Frédéric Guinet, Jean-Louis Churin, Carine Put, François Le Tacon, Claire Veneault-Fourrey, Francis Martin, and Annegret Kohler. 2021. "A Transcriptomic Atlas of the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Laccaria bicolor" Microorganisms 9, no. 12: 2612. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9122612

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