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Open AccessArticle

Liver Transudate, a Potential Alternative to Detect Anti-Hepatitis E Virus Antibodies in Pigs and Wild Boars (Sus scrofa)

1
VISAVET Health Surveillance Center, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
2
MAEVA SERVET, S.L., Alameda del Valle, 28749 Madrid, Spain
3
Microbiology Division, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad de Burgos, Plaza Misael Bañuelos s/n, 09001 Burgos, Spain
4
Department of Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(3), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8030450
Received: 18 February 2020 / Revised: 19 March 2020 / Accepted: 20 March 2020 / Published: 23 March 2020
In recent years, cases of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection have increased in Europe in association with the consumption of contaminated food, mainly from pork products but also from wild boars. The animal’s serum is usually tested for the presence of anti-HEV antibodies and viral RNA but, in many cases such as during hunting, an adequate serum sample cannot be obtained. In the present study, liver transudate was evaluated as an alternative matrix to serum for HEV detection. A total of 125 sera and liver transudates were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at different dilutions (1:2, 1:10, 1:20), while 58 samples of serum and liver transudate were checked for the presence of HEV RNA by RT-qPCR. Anti- HEV antibodies were detected by ELISA in 68.0% of the serum samples, and in 61.6% of the undiluted transudate, and in 70.4%, 56.8%, and 44.8% of 1:2, 1:10, or 1:20 diluted transudate, respectively. The best results were obtained for the liver transudate at 1:10 dilution, based on the Kappa statistic (0.630) and intraclass correlation coefficient (0.841). HEV RNA was detected by RT-qPCR in 22.4% of the serum samples and 6.9% of the transudate samples, all samples used for RT-qPCR were positive by ELISA. Our results indicate that liver transudate may be an alternative matrix to serum for the detection of anti-HEV antibodies. View Full-Text
Keywords: hepatitis E virus; pig; wild boar; liver transudate; diagnosis; serology; ELISA; PCR hepatitis E virus; pig; wild boar; liver transudate; diagnosis; serology; ELISA; PCR
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Navarro, A.; Bárcena, C.; Pozo, P.; Díez-Guerrier, A.; Martínez, I.; Polo, C.; Duque, C.; Rodríguez-Lázaro, D.; Goyache, J.; García, N. Liver Transudate, a Potential Alternative to Detect Anti-Hepatitis E Virus Antibodies in Pigs and Wild Boars (Sus scrofa). Microorganisms 2020, 8, 450.

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