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Open AccessArticle

Streptococcus mutans and Actinomyces naeslundii Interaction in Dual-Species Biofilm

1
School of Dentistry, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Araraquara, SP 14801-385, Brazil
2
São José dos Campos Institute of Science and Technology, São Paulo State University (UNESP), São José dos Campos, SP 12245-000, Brazil
3
Centre for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(2), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8020194
Received: 25 November 2019 / Revised: 17 January 2020 / Accepted: 24 January 2020 / Published: 31 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Biofilms)
The study of bacterial interaction between Streptococcus mutans and Actinomyces naeslundii may disclose important features of biofilm interspecies relationships. The aim of this study was to characterize—with an emphasis on biofilm formation and composition and metabolic activity—single- and dual-species biofilms of S. mutans or A. naeslundii, and to use a drip flow reactor (DFR) to evaluate biofilm stress responses to 0.2% chlorhexidine diacetate (CHX). Single- and dual-species biofilms were grown for 24 h. The following factors were evaluated: cell viability, biomass and total proteins in the extracellular matrix, 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide—“XTT”—reduction and lactic acid production. To evaluate stress response, biofilms were grown in DFR. Biofilms were treated with CHX or 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl; control). Biofilms were plated for viability assessment. Confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM) was also performed. Data analysis was carried out at 5% significance level. S. mutans viability and lactic acid production in dual-species biofilms were significantly reduced. S. mutans showed a higher resistance to CHX in dual-species biofilms. Total protein content, biomass and XTT reduction showed no significant differences between single- and dual-species biofilms. CLSM images showed the formation of large clusters in dual-species biofilms. In conclusion, dual-species biofilms reduced S. mutans viability and lactic acid production and increased S. mutans’ resistance to chlorhexidine. View Full-Text
Keywords: microbial interaction; biofilm; virulence factor; dental caries; S. mutans; A. naeslundii microbial interaction; biofilm; virulence factor; dental caries; S. mutans; A. naeslundii
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MDPI and ACS Style

de Oliveira, R.V.D.; Bonafé, F.S.S.; Spolidorio, D.M.P.; Koga-Ito, C.Y.; de Farias, A.L.; Kirker, K.R.; James, G.A.; Brighenti, F.L. Streptococcus mutans and Actinomyces naeslundii Interaction in Dual-Species Biofilm. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 194. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8020194

AMA Style

de Oliveira RVD, Bonafé FSS, Spolidorio DMP, Koga-Ito CY, de Farias AL, Kirker KR, James GA, Brighenti FL. Streptococcus mutans and Actinomyces naeslundii Interaction in Dual-Species Biofilm. Microorganisms. 2020; 8(2):194. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8020194

Chicago/Turabian Style

de Oliveira, Rosa V.D.; Bonafé, Fernanda S.S.; Spolidorio, Denise M.P.; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Y.; de Farias, Aline L.; Kirker, Kelly R.; James, Garth A.; Brighenti, Fernanda L. 2020. "Streptococcus mutans and Actinomyces naeslundii Interaction in Dual-Species Biofilm" Microorganisms 8, no. 2: 194. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8020194

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