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Article

Impact of Mediterranean Diet on Disease Activity and Gut Microbiota Composition of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

1
Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sant’Andrea University Hospital, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy
2
Division of Gastroenterology, Fondazione IRCCS Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza Hospital, 71013 San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(12), 1989; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8121989
Received: 18 November 2020 / Revised: 5 December 2020 / Accepted: 11 December 2020 / Published: 14 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial and Autoimmune Disease)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder in which gut and oral microbiota play a crucial role. Diet is a modifiable factor that can influence both microbiota composition and arthritis outcome; previous studies have suggested associations between dietary habits and RA, with contrasting results. We investigate the protective effect of the Mediterranean diet (MD) on disease activity and the gut microbiota profile in RA patients. Sixty consecutive RA patients were enrolled upon filling a validated 14-item questionnaire for the assessment of adherence to the Mediterranean diet (Prevention with Mediterranean Diet-PREDIMED). Then, 16S analysis was employed to explore the gut microbiota within the two cohorts of patients. Patients with high adherence to MD (20) had a significantly lower C-reactive protein (p < 0.037) and disease activity (p < 0.034) than the 40 patients with low/moderate adherence to MD. An inverse association between MD and disease activity was confirmed by multivariate analysis after adjustments for all the different demographic, clinical and serologic variables. A healthier gut microbiota composition was observed in the high adherence group, with a significant decrease in Lactobacillaceae and an almost complete absence of Prevotella copri with respect to the low/moderate adherence group. In conclusion, our findings support the protective role of MD on disease activity and microbiota composition in RA patients, and suggest the feasibility of shifting the habitual diet to modulate the gut microbiota and promote the benefits associated with MD. View Full-Text
Keywords: gut microbiota; rheumatoid arthritis; Mediterranean diet; disease activity gut microbiota; rheumatoid arthritis; Mediterranean diet; disease activity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Picchianti Diamanti, A.; Panebianco, C.; Salerno, G.; Di Rosa, R.; Salemi, S.; Sorgi, M.L.; Meneguzzi, G.; Mariani, M.B.; Rai, A.; Iacono, D.; Sesti, G.; Pazienza, V.; Laganà, B. Impact of Mediterranean Diet on Disease Activity and Gut Microbiota Composition of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 1989. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8121989

AMA Style

Picchianti Diamanti A, Panebianco C, Salerno G, Di Rosa R, Salemi S, Sorgi ML, Meneguzzi G, Mariani MB, Rai A, Iacono D, Sesti G, Pazienza V, Laganà B. Impact of Mediterranean Diet on Disease Activity and Gut Microbiota Composition of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients. Microorganisms. 2020; 8(12):1989. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8121989

Chicago/Turabian Style

Picchianti Diamanti, Andrea, Concetta Panebianco, Gerardo Salerno, Roberta Di Rosa, Simonetta Salemi, Maria L. Sorgi, Giorgia Meneguzzi, Maria B. Mariani, Alessandra Rai, Dalila Iacono, Giorgio Sesti, Valerio Pazienza, and Bruno Laganà. 2020. "Impact of Mediterranean Diet on Disease Activity and Gut Microbiota Composition of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients" Microorganisms 8, no. 12: 1989. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8121989

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