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Article

Gut Microbiome in Children from Indigenous and Urban Communities in México: Different Subsistence Models, Different Microbiomes

1
Laboratorio de Ecología Bacteriana, Instituto de Ecología, UNAM, Mexico City 04510, Mexico
2
Consorcio de Investigación del Golfo de México (CIGOM), Departamento de Recursos del Mar, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Mérida, Yucatan 97310, Mexico
3
Instituto de Ecología, Campus Yucatán, Parque Científico y Tecnológico de Yucatán, Mérida 97302, Mexico
4
Neuroecology Lab, Facultad de Psicología, UNAM, Mexico City 04510, Mexico
5
Laboratorio de Aprendizaje y Adaptación, Facultad de Psicología, UNAM, Mexico City 04510, Mexico
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(10), 1592; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8101592
Received: 27 July 2020 / Revised: 31 August 2020 / Accepted: 3 September 2020 / Published: 16 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Human Gut Microbiome, Diets and Health)
The human gut microbiome is an important component that defines host health. Childhood is a particularly important period for the establishment and development of gut microbiota (GM). We sequenced the 16S rRNA gene from fecal samples of children between 5 and 10 years old, in two Mexican communities with contrasting lifestyles, i.e., “Westernized” (México City, n = 13) and “non-Westernized” (Me’phaa indigenous group, n = 29), in order to characterize and compare their GM. The main differences between these two communities were in bacteria associated with different types of diets (high animal protein and refined sugars vs. high fiber food, respectively). In addition, the GM of Me’phaa children showed higher total diversity and the presence of exclusive phyla, such as Deinococcus-Thermus, Chloroflexi, Elusimicrobia, Acidobacteria, and Fibrobacteres. In contrast, the children from México City showed less diversity and the presence of Saccharibacteria phylum, which was associated with the degradation of sugar compounds and was not present in the samples from Me’phaa children. This comparison provided further knowledge of the selective pressures affecting microbial ecosystemic composition over the course of human evolution and the potential consequences of pathophysiological states correlated with Westernization lifestyles. View Full-Text
Keywords: intestinal microbiome; children’s microbiota; diet; Westernized; non-Westernized; lifestyle; microbial diversity; human health intestinal microbiome; children’s microbiota; diet; Westernized; non-Westernized; lifestyle; microbial diversity; human health
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sánchez-Quinto, A.; Cerqueda-García, D.; Falcón, L.I.; Gaona, O.; Martínez-Correa, S.; Nieto, J.; G-Santoyo, I. Gut Microbiome in Children from Indigenous and Urban Communities in México: Different Subsistence Models, Different Microbiomes. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 1592. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8101592

AMA Style

Sánchez-Quinto A, Cerqueda-García D, Falcón LI, Gaona O, Martínez-Correa S, Nieto J, G-Santoyo I. Gut Microbiome in Children from Indigenous and Urban Communities in México: Different Subsistence Models, Different Microbiomes. Microorganisms. 2020; 8(10):1592. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8101592

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sánchez-Quinto, Andrés, Daniel Cerqueda-García, Luisa I. Falcón, Osiris Gaona, Santiago Martínez-Correa, Javier Nieto, and Isaac G-Santoyo. 2020. "Gut Microbiome in Children from Indigenous and Urban Communities in México: Different Subsistence Models, Different Microbiomes" Microorganisms 8, no. 10: 1592. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8101592

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