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Antibiotic Pollution in the Environment: From Microbial Ecology to Public Policy

1
Department of Biology, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke Street W, Montreal, QC H4B1R6, Canada
2
Department of Biology, Reem-Kayden Center for Sciences and Computation, Bard College, 31 Campus Road, Annandale-On-Hudson, NY 12504, USA
3
Center for the Study of Land, Water, and Air, Bard College, Annandale-On-Hudson, NY 12504, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2019, 7(6), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7060180
Received: 24 May 2019 / Revised: 6 June 2019 / Accepted: 10 June 2019 / Published: 22 June 2019
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Abstract

The ability to fight bacterial infections with antibiotics has been a longstanding cornerstone of modern medicine. However, wide-spread overuse and misuse of antibiotics has led to unintended consequences, which in turn require large-scale changes of policy for mitigation. In this review, we address two broad classes of corollaries of antibiotics overuse and misuse. Firstly, we discuss the spread of antibiotic resistance from hotspots of resistance evolution to the environment, with special concerns given to potential vectors of resistance transmission. Secondly, we outline the effects of antibiotic pollution independent of resistance evolution on natural microbial populations, as well as invertebrates and vertebrates. We close with an overview of current regional policies tasked with curbing the effects of antibiotics pollution and outline areas in which such policies are still under development. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibiotic resistance; environmental resistome; antibiotic pollution; antimicrobial resistance (AMR) policies antibiotic resistance; environmental resistome; antibiotic pollution; antimicrobial resistance (AMR) policies
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Kraemer, S.A.; Ramachandran, A.; Perron, G.G. Antibiotic Pollution in the Environment: From Microbial Ecology to Public Policy. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 180.

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