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Efficiency of Single Phage Suspensions and Phage Cocktail in the Inactivation of Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium: An In Vitro Preliminary Study

Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro, Campus Universit√°rio de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2019, 7(4), 94;
Received: 8 February 2019 / Revised: 22 March 2019 / Accepted: 27 March 2019 / Published: 31 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies and Weapons to Fight Antimicrobial Resistance)
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Enterobacteriaceae Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains are among the main pathogens responsible for moderate and serious infections at hospital and community environments, in part because they frequently present resistance to antibiotics. As the treatment of Enterobacteriaceae infections is empiric, using the same antibiotics to treat E. coli and Salmonella infections, the same concept can be applied with phages. The use of different phages combined in cocktails, frequently used to circumvent the development of phage-resistant mutants, also allows for the treatment of multiple pathogens, broadening the phages’ action spectrum. As such, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a cocktail of two phages (ELY-1, produced on E. coli and phSE-5, produced on S. Typhimurium) to control E. coli and S. Typhimurium. Phages ELY-1 and phSE-5 were effective against E. coli (maximum reductions of 4.5 and 3.8 log CFU/mL, respectively), S. Typhimurium (maximum reductions of 2.2 and 2.6 log CFU/mL, respectively), and the mixture of both bacteria (maximum reductions of 2.2 and 2.0 log CFU/mL, respectively). The cocktail ELY-1/phSE-5 was more effective against S. Typhimurium and the mixture of both bacteria (maximum reduction of 3.2 log CFU/mL for both) than the single phage suspensions and as effective against E. coli as its specific phage ELY-1 (maximum reductions of 4.5 log CFU/mL). The use of both the phage cocktails, as well as the single-phage suspensions, however, did not prevent the occurrence of phage-resistant mutants. Overall, the results indicate that the application of the phages in the form of a cocktail show their potential to be used presumptively, that is, prior to the identification of the pathogens, paving its use to control E. coli or S. Typhimurium. View Full-Text
Keywords: bacterial-phage inactivation; phage cocktail; Escherichia coli; S. Typhimurium bacterial-phage inactivation; phage cocktail; Escherichia coli; S. Typhimurium

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Costa, P.; Pereira, C.; Gomes, A.T.P.C.; Almeida, A. Efficiency of Single Phage Suspensions and Phage Cocktail in the Inactivation of Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium: An In Vitro Preliminary Study. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 94.

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