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Natural Products for the Treatment of Chlamydiaceae Infections

by 1,2,3,†, 1,2,†, 1,2 and 1,2,*
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798, Singapore
Centre for Biomimetic Sensor Science, 50 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637553, Singapore
Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Eberhard Straube
Microorganisms 2016, 4(4), 39;
Received: 18 July 2016 / Revised: 4 October 2016 / Accepted: 7 October 2016 / Published: 16 October 2016
Due to the global prevalence of Chlamydiae, exploring studies of diverse antichlamydial compounds is important in the development of effective treatment strategies and global infectious disease management. Chlamydiaceae is the most widely known bacterial family of the Chlamydiae order. Among the species in the family Chlamydiaceae, Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae cause common human diseases, while Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia psittaci, and Chlamydia suis represent zoonotic threats or are endemic in human food sources. Although chlamydial infections are currently manageable in human populations, chlamydial infections in livestock are endemic and there is significant difficulty achieving effective treatment. To combat the spread of Chlamydiaceae in humans and other hosts, improved methods for treatment and prevention of infection are needed. There exist various studies exploring the potential of natural products for developing new antichlamydial treatment modalities. Polyphenolic compounds can inhibit chlamydial growth by membrane disruption, reestablishment of host cell apoptosis, or improving host immune system detection. Fatty acids, monoglycerides, and lipids can disrupt the cell membranes of infective chlamydial elementary bodies (EBs). Peptides can disrupt the cell membranes of chlamydial EBs, and transferrins can inhibit chlamydial EBs from attachment to and permeation through the membranes of host cells. Cellular metabolites and probiotic bacteria can inhibit chlamydial infection by modulating host immune responses and directly inhibiting chlamydial growth. Finally, early stage clinical trials indicate that polyherbal formulations can be effective in treating chlamydial infections. Herein, we review an important body of literature in the field of antichlamydial research. View Full-Text
Keywords: Chlamydiae; Chlamydiaceae; Chlamydia; chlamydial infections; natural products; antibacterial Chlamydiae; Chlamydiaceae; Chlamydia; chlamydial infections; natural products; antibacterial
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MDPI and ACS Style

Brown, M.A.; Potroz, M.G.; Teh, S.-W.; Cho, N.-J. Natural Products for the Treatment of Chlamydiaceae Infections. Microorganisms 2016, 4, 39.

AMA Style

Brown MA, Potroz MG, Teh S-W, Cho N-J. Natural Products for the Treatment of Chlamydiaceae Infections. Microorganisms. 2016; 4(4):39.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Brown, Mika A., Michael G. Potroz, Seoh-Wei Teh, and Nam-Joon Cho. 2016. "Natural Products for the Treatment of Chlamydiaceae Infections" Microorganisms 4, no. 4: 39.

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