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Microorganisms 2016, 4(4), 43;

Lead Discovery Strategies for Identification of Chlamydia pneumoniae Inhibitors

Pharmaceutical Biology, Division of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, Helsinki FI-00014, Finland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Eberhard Straube
Received: 10 August 2016 / Revised: 28 October 2016 / Accepted: 4 November 2016 / Published: 28 November 2016
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Throughout its known history, the gram-negative bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniae has remained a challenging target for antibacterial chemotherapy and drug discovery. Owing to its well-known propensity for persistence and recent reports on antimicrobial resistence within closely related species, new approaches for targeting this ubiquitous human pathogen are urgently needed. In this review, we describe the strategies that have been successfully applied for the identification of nonconventional antichlamydial agents, including target-based and ligand-based virtual screening, ethnopharmacological approach and pharmacophore-based design of antimicrobial peptide-mimicking compounds. Among the antichlamydial agents identified via these strategies, most translational work has been carried out with plant phenolics. Thus, currently available data on their properties as antichlamydial agents are described, highlighting their potential mechanisms of action. In this context, the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in the intracellular growth and survival of C. pneumoniae is discussed. Owing to the complex and often complementary pathways applied by C. pneumoniae in the different stages of its life cycle, multitargeted therapy approaches are expected to provide better tools for antichlamydial therapy than agents with a single molecular target. View Full-Text
Keywords: Chlamydia pneumoniae; antichlamydial agent; plant phenolics; antimicrobial peptide Chlamydia pneumoniae; antichlamydial agent; plant phenolics; antimicrobial peptide

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Hanski, L.; Vuorela, P. Lead Discovery Strategies for Identification of Chlamydia pneumoniae Inhibitors. Microorganisms 2016, 4, 43.

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