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Open AccessArticle

Comparative Energy Analysis of a Load Sensing System and a Zonal Hydraulics for a 9-Tonne Excavator

1
Department of Engineering and Architecture, University of Parma, 43124 Parma, Italy
2
Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, IHA Innovative Hydraulics and Automation, Tampere University, FI-33720 Tampere, Finland
3
Department of Energy, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Actuators 2020, 9(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/act9020039
Received: 14 April 2020 / Revised: 18 May 2020 / Accepted: 19 May 2020 / Published: 20 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electro-Hydraulic Actuators)
With the rising demand for energy efficiency, displacement-controlled or so-called pump-controlled systems have become an attractive research topic for applications in construction machinery and other off-road vehicles. Pump-controlled systems can be implemented with electro-hydrostatic actuators as electro-hydraulic zones, which are located next to the end actuator as a replacement for the traditional valve-controlled hydraulic actuation systems. In this paper a 9-tonne class excavator is utilized as a study case. A mathematical model of the conventional machine, validated with tests carried out on both the excavator and the single hydraulic components, was previously developed within the Simcenter AMESim© environment. This mathematical model was modified with electric components for simulating a zonal hydraulics excavator and compared with a conventional load sensing (LS) machine. The energy efficiencies of both the LS circuit and the new solution were evaluated for typical duty cycles, pointing out the obtainable energy efficiency improvements, which were mainly due to the absence of the directional valves and pressure compensators. The results also point out the effect of the pipe losses when the circuit layout requires the pipe for connecting the pump with the actuator; moreover, the effect of a diesel engine downsizing on the energy saving was evaluated.
Keywords: excavator; electro-hydrostatic actuator; load sensing; energy saving; pump-controlled systems; zonal hydraulics excavator; electro-hydrostatic actuator; load sensing; energy saving; pump-controlled systems; zonal hydraulics
MDPI and ACS Style

Casoli, P.; Scolari, F.; Minav, T.; Rundo, M. Comparative Energy Analysis of a Load Sensing System and a Zonal Hydraulics for a 9-Tonne Excavator. Actuators 2020, 9, 39.

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