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Buffalopox Virus: An Emerging Virus in Livestock and Humans

1
Unit of Animal Health and Safety of Animal Products, Institute for Studies and Promotion of Animal Exports, University of Khartoum, Shambat 13314, Khartoum North, Sudan
2
Entomology Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo 11566, Egypt
3
Division of Microbiology and Animal Hygiene, Georg-August University Göttingen, Burckhardtweg 2, D-37077 Göttingen, Germany
4
Institute of Animal Hygiene and Veterinary Public Health, University of Leipzig, An den Tierkliniken 43, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Passed away during the final stages of completion of this manuscript.
Pathogens 2020, 9(9), 676; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9090676
Received: 24 June 2020 / Revised: 14 August 2020 / Accepted: 14 August 2020 / Published: 20 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Pathogens)
Buffalopox virus (BPXV) is the cause of buffalopox, which was recognized by the FAO/WHO Joint Expert Committee on Zoonosis as an important zoonotic disease. Buffalopox was first described in India, later in other countries, and has become an emerging contagious viral zoonotic disease infecting milkers with high morbidity among affected domestic buffalo and cattle. BPXV is a member of the genus Orthopoxvirus and a close variant of the vaccinia virus (VACV). Recent genome data show that BPXV shares a most recent common ancestor of VACV Lister strain, which had been used for inoculating buffalo calves to produce a Smallpox vaccine. Over time, VACV evolved into BPXV by establishing itself in buffaloes to be increasingly pathogenic to this host and to make infections in cattle and humans. Together with the current pandemic of SARS-COV2/COVID 19, BPXV infections illustrate how vulnerable the human population is to the emergence and re-emergence of viral pathogens from unsuspected sources. In view that majority of the world population are not vaccinated against smallpox and are most vulnerable in the event of its re-emergence, reviewing and understanding the biology of vaccinia-like viruses are necessary for developing a new generation of safer smallpox vaccines in the smallpox-free world. View Full-Text
Keywords: buffalopox; VACV; smallpox; orthopoxviruses buffalopox; VACV; smallpox; orthopoxviruses
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MDPI and ACS Style

Eltom, K.H.; Samy, A.M.; Abd El Wahed, A.; Czerny, C.-P. Buffalopox Virus: An Emerging Virus in Livestock and Humans. Pathogens 2020, 9, 676. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9090676

AMA Style

Eltom KH, Samy AM, Abd El Wahed A, Czerny C-P. Buffalopox Virus: An Emerging Virus in Livestock and Humans. Pathogens. 2020; 9(9):676. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9090676

Chicago/Turabian Style

Eltom, Kamal H., Abdallah M. Samy, Ahmed Abd El Wahed, and Claus-Peter Czerny. 2020. "Buffalopox Virus: An Emerging Virus in Livestock and Humans" Pathogens 9, no. 9: 676. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9090676

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