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Article

Molecular Characterization of African Swine Fever Virus Isolates in Estonia in 2014–2019

1
Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 62, 51006 Tartu, Estonia
2
Veterinary and Food Laboratory, Kreutzwaldi 30, 51006 Tartu, Estonia
3
European Union Reference Laboratory for ASF, INIA-CISA, 28130 Valdeolmos, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(7), 582; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9070582
Received: 25 June 2020 / Revised: 14 July 2020 / Accepted: 15 July 2020 / Published: 17 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue African Swine Fever Virus Infection)
After the extensive spread of the African swine fever virus (ASFV) genotype II in Eastern Europe, the first case of African swine fever (ASF) in Estonia was diagnosed in September 2014. By the end of 2019, 3971 ASFV-positive wild boars were found, and 27 domestic pig outbreaks were reported. A selection of ASFV isolates from wild boar and domestic pigs (during the period of September 2014–2019) was molecularly characterized using standardized genotyping procedures. One of the proven markers to characterize this virus is the central variable region (CVR) within the B602L gene. In summer 2015, a new ASFV genotype II CVR variant 2 (GII-CVR2) was confirmed in Estonia. The results suggest that the GII-CVR2 variant was only confirmed in wild boar from a limited area in southern Estonia in 2015 and 2016. In addition to GII-CVR2, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that resulted in amino acid change was identified within the genotype II CVR variant 1 (GII-CVR1). The GII-CVR1/SNP1 strain was isolated in Estonia in November 2016. Additional GII-CVR1/SNP1 cases were confirmed in two neighbouring counties, as well as in one outbreak farm in June 2017. Based on the available data, no GII-CVR2 and GII-CVR1/SNP1 have been reported by other affected European countries. The spread of variant strains in Estonia has been limited over time, and restricted to a relatively small area. View Full-Text
Keywords: African swine fever; CVR; genotyping; molecular characterization African swine fever; CVR; genotyping; molecular characterization
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vilem, A.; Nurmoja, I.; Niine, T.; Riit, T.; Nieto, R.; Viltrop, A.; Gallardo, C. Molecular Characterization of African Swine Fever Virus Isolates in Estonia in 2014–2019. Pathogens 2020, 9, 582. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9070582

AMA Style

Vilem A, Nurmoja I, Niine T, Riit T, Nieto R, Viltrop A, Gallardo C. Molecular Characterization of African Swine Fever Virus Isolates in Estonia in 2014–2019. Pathogens. 2020; 9(7):582. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9070582

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vilem, Annika, Imbi Nurmoja, Tarmo Niine, Taavi Riit, Raquel Nieto, Arvo Viltrop, and Carmina Gallardo. 2020. "Molecular Characterization of African Swine Fever Virus Isolates in Estonia in 2014–2019" Pathogens 9, no. 7: 582. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9070582

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