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Listeria monocytogenes Response to Anaerobic Environments
Open AccessReview

Listeria monocytogenes Virulence, Antimicrobial Resistance and Environmental Persistence: A Review

1
SAMRC Microbial Water Quality Monitoring Centre, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa
2
Applied and Environmental Microbiology Research Group, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(7), 528; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9070528
Received: 5 May 2020 / Revised: 6 June 2020 / Accepted: 20 June 2020 / Published: 30 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Listeria monocytogenes Pathogenesis)
Listeria monocytogenes is a ubiquitous opportunistic pathogen responsible for the well-known listeriosis disease. This bacterium has become a common contaminant of food, threatening the food processing industry. Once consumed, the pathogen is capable of traversing epithelial barriers, cellular invasion, and intracellular replication through the modulation of virulence factors such as internalins and haemolysins. Mobile genetic elements (plasmids and transposons) and other sophisticated mechanisms are thought to contribute to the increasing antimicrobial resistance of L. monocytogenes. The environmental persistence of the pathogen is aided by its ability to withstand environmental stresses such as acidity, cold stress, osmotic stress, and oxidative stress. This review seeks to give an insight into L. monocytogenes biology, with emphasis on its virulence factors, antimicrobial resistance, and adaptations to environmental stresses. View Full-Text
Keywords: Listeria monocytogenes; virulence; biofilm; antimicrobial resistance; environmental stress Listeria monocytogenes; virulence; biofilm; antimicrobial resistance; environmental stress
MDPI and ACS Style

Matereke, L.T.; Okoh, A.I. Listeria monocytogenes Virulence, Antimicrobial Resistance and Environmental Persistence: A Review. Pathogens 2020, 9, 528.

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