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Open AccessArticle

Naturally Acquired Humoral Immunity against Malaria Parasites in Non-Human Primates from the Brazilian Amazon, Cerrado and Atlantic Forest

1
Instituto de Medicina Tropical, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP 05403-000, Brazil
2
ISGlobal, Hospital Clínic—Universitat de Barcelona, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
3
Germans Trias i Pujol Health Science Research Institute (IGTP), 08916 Badalona, Spain
4
Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz Rondônia, Porto Velho, RO 76812-245, Brazil
5
Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal de Rondônia, Porto Velho, RO 78900-000, Brazil
6
Life Sciences, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284, USA
7
Departamento de Laboratórios Especializados, Superintendência de Controle de Endemias, São Paulo, SP 01027-000, Brazil
8
Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21040-900, Brazil
9
Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP 05508-270, Brazil
10
Departamento de Pesquisas Aplicadas, Fundação Parque Zoológico de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP 04301-905, Brazil
11
Institute of Ecology, Nature Research Centre, Vilnius 08412, Lithuania
12
Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, São Paulo, SP 01311-925, Brazil
13
Departamento de Anatomia Patológica, AC Camargo Cancer Center, São Paulo, SP 01525-001, Brazil
14
Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Fundação Universidade Regional de Blumenau, Blumenau, SC 89012-900, Brazil
15
Projeto Bugio, Centro de Pesquisas Biológicas, Indaial, SC 89130-000, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(7), 525; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9070525
Received: 30 May 2020 / Revised: 24 June 2020 / Accepted: 25 June 2020 / Published: 29 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Parasitic Diseases)
Non-human primates (NHPs) have been shown to be infected by parasites of the genus Plasmodium, the etiological agent of malaria in humans, creating potential risks of zoonotic transmission. Plasmodium brasilianum, a parasite species similar to P. malariae of humans, have been described in NHPs from Central and South America, including Brazil. The merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1), besides being a malaria vaccine candidate, is highly immunogenic. Due to such properties, we tested this protein for the diagnosis of parasite infection. We used recombinant proteins of P. malariae MSP1, as well as of P. falciparum and P. vivax, for the detection of antibodies anti-MSP1 of these parasite species, in the sera of NHPs collected in different regions of Brazil. About 40% of the NHP sera were confirmed as reactive to the proteins of one or more parasite species. A relatively higher number of reactive sera was found in animals from the Atlantic Forest than those from the Amazon region, possibly reflecting the former more intense parasite circulation among NHPs due to their proximity to humans at a higher populational density. The presence of Plasmodium positive NHPs in the surveyed areas, being therefore potential parasite reservoirs, needs to be considered in any malaria surveillance program. View Full-Text
Keywords: malaria; Plasmodium malariae; MSP1; non-human primates; serology; Brazil malaria; Plasmodium malariae; MSP1; non-human primates; serology; Brazil
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Monteiro, E.F.; Fernandez-Becerra, C.; Araujo, M.S.; Messias, M.R.; Ozaki, L.S.; Duarte, A.M.R.C.; Bueno, M.G.; Catao-Dias, J.L.; Chagas, C.R.F.; Mathias, B.S.; Santos, M.G.; Santos, S.V.; Holcman, M.M.; Souza, J.C., Jr.; Kirchgatter, K. Naturally Acquired Humoral Immunity against Malaria Parasites in Non-Human Primates from the Brazilian Amazon, Cerrado and Atlantic Forest. Pathogens 2020, 9, 525.

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