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Development and Challenges in Animal Tuberculosis Vaccination

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Departamento de Sanidad Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de León, 24071 León, Spain
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Departamento de Sanidad Animal, Instituto de Ganadería de Montaña (CSIC-Universidad de León), Finca Marzanas, Grulleros, 24346 León, Spain
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SaBio-Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos IREC (UCLM-CSIC-JCCM), Universidad de Castilla-la Mancha (UCLM), 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain
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Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), New Delhi 110001, India
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Departamento de Anatomía y Anatomía Patológica Comparadas y Toxicología. Facultad de Veterinaria. Universidad de Córdoba (UCO), 14014 Córdoba, Spain
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Unidad de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Grupo de Virología Clínica y Zoonosis, Instituto Maimónides de Investigación Biomédica de Córdoba (IMIBIC), Hospital Reina Sofía, Universidad de Córdoba (UCO), 14004 Córdoba, Spain
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(6), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9060472
Received: 26 May 2020 / Revised: 11 June 2020 / Accepted: 12 June 2020 / Published: 15 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tuberculosis Epidemiology and Control in Multi-Host Systems)
Vaccination with Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) constituted a major advance in the prevention of human tuberculosis (TB) in the beginning of the past century. BCG has also a clear potential for use in animals and, in particular, in the main domestic species subjected to TB control programs, cattle. Nowadays, the use of BCG vaccination against TB in cattle is not permitted by European Union legislation because BCG can induce a cellular immune response producing diagnostic interference in the eradication programs based on tuberculin single and comparative intradermal tests imposed worldwide. In this review, we recall the history of TB vaccination as well as different vaccine trials and the response to vaccination in both domestic and wild animals. Promising potential inactivated vaccines are also reviewed. Research studies are mainly focused to improve vaccine efficacy, and at the same time to ensure its easy administration, safety and stability in the environment. Great challenges remain, particularly in terms of vaccine candidates and also in the acceptance of vaccination. Vaccination should be included in a strategic plan for integrated control of TB under a “one health” perspective, which also includes other measures such as improved biosafety on farms to avoid or decrease contact between domestic and wild animals or control of wildlife reservoirs to avoid overabundance that may favor infection maintenance. View Full-Text
Keywords: vaccination; tuberculosis; Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG); heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis vaccine (HIMB); domestic animal; wildlife vaccination; tuberculosis; Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG); heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis vaccine (HIMB); domestic animal; wildlife
MDPI and ACS Style

Balseiro, A.; Thomas, J.; Gortázar, C.; Risalde, M.A. Development and Challenges in Animal Tuberculosis Vaccination. Pathogens 2020, 9, 472.

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