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Open AccessArticle

Genetic Diversity of Porcine Circovirus Isolated from Korean Wild Boars

Virus Disease Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimchen, Gyeongbuk-do 39660, Korea
College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul University, Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors made an equal contribution.
Pathogens 2020, 9(6), 457;
Received: 28 April 2020 / Revised: 7 June 2020 / Accepted: 8 June 2020 / Published: 9 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porcine Circovirus Infections)
In Korea, three genotypes of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2a, PCV2b, and PCV2d) have been identified on domestic pig farms, while two genotypes (PCV2a and PCV2b) have been identified in wild boar populations. Here, we investigated genotype diversity and genotypic shift in 91 PCV2 isolates from 1340 wild boars captured in South Korea between 2013 and 2017. Phylogenetic analyses based on the complete ORF2 showed that the 91 PCV2 strains were detected as four genotypes by qPCR screening assay: PCV2a (2.2%, 2/91), PCV2b (16.5%, 15/91), PCV2d (80.2%, 73/91), and PCV2h (1.1%, 1/91). Only one intergenotype recombinant event was detected between PCV2 ORF2 in wild boars (PCV2b) and domestic pigs (PCV2a). Amino acid positions 86–89 within ORF2, which distinguishes the different genotypes, were conserved in all PCV2 genotypes isolated from South Korean wild boars, including TNKI in PCV2a/PCV2h, SNPR in PCV2b, and SNPL in PCV2d. The estimated nucleotide substitution rates in the ORF2 region of viruses from South Korean wild boars and domestic pigs were 5.8145 × 10−4 and 4.5838 × 10−4 substitutions per site per year (s/s/y), respectively. The times to the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) for South Korean domestic pig PCV2 were 1937 (PCV2a), 1972 (PCV2b), 1999 (PCV2d-1), and 2000 (PCV2d-2). By contrast, the tMRCA for South Korean wild boar PCV2b and PCV2d were 1989 and 2001, respectively. Thus, the PCV2d genotype is prevalent among South Korean wild boars and domestic pigs. View Full-Text
Keywords: PCV2; wild boar; recombination; tMRCA; genotype shift PCV2; wild boar; recombination; tMRCA; genotype shift
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Song, S.; Park, G.-N.; Choe, S.; Cha, R.M.; Kim, S.-Y.; Hyun, B.-H.; Park, B.-K.; An, D.-J. Genetic Diversity of Porcine Circovirus Isolated from Korean Wild Boars. Pathogens 2020, 9, 457.

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