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Open AccessCommunication

Lack of Porcine circovirus 4 Genome Detection in Pig Samples from Italy and Spain

1
Department of Animal Medicine, Production and Health (MAPS), University of Padua, 35020 Legnaro, Italy
2
IRTA, Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal (CReSA, IRTA-UAB), Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain
3
OIE Collaborating Centre for the Research and Control of Emerging and Re-Emerging Swine Diseases in Europe (IRTA-CReSA), 08193 Bellaterra, Spain
4
Departament de Sanitat i Anatomia Animals, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), 08193 Bellaterra, Spain
5
Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal (CReSA, IRTA-UAB), UAB, Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(6), 433; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9060433
Received: 30 April 2020 / Revised: 23 May 2020 / Accepted: 28 May 2020 / Published: 31 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porcine Circovirus Infections)
The genus Circovirus includes several species and mostly causes asymptomatic infections. Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2) and, with increasing evidence, Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV-3), have been associated with different clinical conditions all over the world. In 2019, a new porcine circovirus (PCV-4) was identified from diseased animals in China. Because of the lessons learned from PCV-2 and PCV-3, it appears mandatory to investigate the actual distribution of this new virus and its potential association with clinical outcomes. To this purpose, an exploratory study to detect PCV-4 by molecular methods was performed in Italy and Spain by testing more than 300 samples of different types (serum and tissues), collected from both healthy and diseased pigs and wild boar as well. All samples, independently from the country, type, health status and host, tested PCV-4 negative. Therefore, no evidence of PCV-4 presence was found in Italy and Spain through this exploratory study. Considering the dense pig trade among European countries, its presence in the continent can similarly be considered unlikely. The reasons behind the restricted PCV-4 distribution compared to other porcine circoviruses will require further investigations. Careful surveillance might nevertheless be important since prompt recognition of PCV-4 would allow the implementation of effective countermeasures to prevent its spreading and potential economic losses. View Full-Text
Keywords: PCV-4; Italy; Spain; molecular epidemiology; absence PCV-4; Italy; Spain; molecular epidemiology; absence
MDPI and ACS Style

Franzo, G.; Ruiz, A.; Grassi, L.; Sibila, M.; Drigo, M.; Segalés, J. Lack of Porcine circovirus 4 Genome Detection in Pig Samples from Italy and Spain. Pathogens 2020, 9, 433.

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