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Origin, Potential Therapeutic Targets and Treatment for Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19)

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
Department of Microbiology, Abbottabad University of Science and Technology, Abbottabad 22010, Pakistan
Department of Genetics, Hazara University Garden Campus, Mansehra 21300, Pakistan
School of Biological Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(4), 307;
Received: 5 April 2020 / Revised: 16 April 2020 / Accepted: 19 April 2020 / Published: 22 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Human Pathogens)
The ongoing episode of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) has imposed a serious threat to global health and the world economy. The disease has rapidly acquired a pandemic status affecting almost all populated areas of the planet. The causative agent of COVID-19 is a novel coronavirus known as SARS-CoV-2. The virus has an approximate 30 kb single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome, which is 74.5% to 99% identical to that of SARS-CoV, CoV-pangolin, and the coronavirus the from horseshoe bat. According to available information, SARS-CoV-2 is inferred to be a recombinant virus that originated from bats and was transmitted to humans, possibly using the pangolin as the intermediate host. The interaction of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein with the human ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) receptor, and its subsequent cleavage by serine protease and fusion, are the main events in the pathophysiology. The serine protease inhibitors, spike protein-based vaccines, or ACE2 blockers may have therapeutic potential in the near future. At present, no vaccine is available against COVID-19. The disease is being treated with antiviral, antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, herbal medicines, and active plasma antibodies. In this context, the present review article provides a cumulative account of the recent information regarding the viral characteristics, potential therapeutic targets, treatment options, and prospective research questions. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; origin; pathogenesis; therapeutics; challenges COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; origin; pathogenesis; therapeutics; challenges
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nadeem, M.S.; Zamzami, M.A.; Choudhry, H.; Murtaza, B.N.; Kazmi, I.; Ahmad, H.; Shakoori, A.R. Origin, Potential Therapeutic Targets and Treatment for Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19). Pathogens 2020, 9, 307.

AMA Style

Nadeem MS, Zamzami MA, Choudhry H, Murtaza BN, Kazmi I, Ahmad H, Shakoori AR. Origin, Potential Therapeutic Targets and Treatment for Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19). Pathogens. 2020; 9(4):307.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nadeem, Muhammad S., Mazin A. Zamzami, Hani Choudhry, Bibi N. Murtaza, Imran Kazmi, Habib Ahmad, and Abdul R. Shakoori. 2020. "Origin, Potential Therapeutic Targets and Treatment for Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19)" Pathogens 9, no. 4: 307.

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