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In Vivo Demonstration of the Superior Replication and Infectivity of Genotype 2.1 with Respect to Genotype 3.4 of Classical Swine Fever Virus by Dual Infections

1
Animal Health Research Institute, Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan, 376 Chung-Cheng Road, Tansui, New Taipei City 25158, Taiwan
2
Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan, No. 37 Nanhai Road, Taipei 10014, Taiwan
3
School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(4), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9040261
Received: 16 March 2020 / Revised: 2 April 2020 / Accepted: 2 April 2020 / Published: 3 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Classical Swine Fever)
In Taiwan, the prevalent CSFV population has shifted from the historical genotype 3.4 (94.4 strain) to the newly invading genotype 2.1 (TD/96 strain) since 1996. This study analyzed the competition between these two virus genotypes in dual infection pigs with equal and different virus populations and with maternally derived neutralizing antibodies induced by a third genotype of modified live vaccine (MLV), to simulate that occurring in natural situations in the field. Experimentally, under various dual infection conditions, with or without the presence of maternal antibodies, with various specimens from blood, oral and fecal swabs, and internal organs at various time points, the TD/96 had consistently 1.51−3.08 log higher loads than those of 94.4. A second passage of competition in the same animals further widened the lead of TD/96 as indicated by viral loads. The maternally derived antibodies provided partial protection to both wild type CSFVs and was correlated with lower clinical scores, febrile reaction, and animal mortality. In the presence of maternal antibodies, pigs could be infected by both wild type CSFVs, with TD/96 dominating. These findings partially explain the CSFV shift observed, furthering our understanding of CSFV pathogenesis in the field, and are helpful for the control of CSF. View Full-Text
Keywords: classical swine fever virus; genotype; virus shift; viral replication; dual infections classical swine fever virus; genotype; virus shift; viral replication; dual infections
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MDPI and ACS Style

Huang, Y.-L.; Tsai, K.-J.; Deng, M.-C.; Liu, H.-M.; Huang, C.-C.; Wang, F.-I.; Chang, C.-Y. In Vivo Demonstration of the Superior Replication and Infectivity of Genotype 2.1 with Respect to Genotype 3.4 of Classical Swine Fever Virus by Dual Infections. Pathogens 2020, 9, 261.

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