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Open AccessArticle

Rapid Spread of Classical Swine Fever Virus among South Korean Wild Boars in Areas near the Border with North Korea

1
Virus Disease Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimchen, Gyeongbuk-do 39660, Korea
2
Division of Veterinary Epidemiological, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimchen, Gyeongbuk-do 39660, Korea
3
Korea Pork Producers Association, Seocho-gu, Seoul 06643, Korea
4
College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul University, Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors made an equal contribution.
Pathogens 2020, 9(4), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9040244
Received: 21 February 2020 / Revised: 24 March 2020 / Accepted: 24 March 2020 / Published: 25 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Classical Swine Fever)
There has been a rapid increase in the number of classical swine fever (CSF) sero-positive wild boars captured near the demilitarized zone (DMZ), located the border with North Korea. In 2015–2016, few CSFV-positive antibody boars were detected; however, the number has increased steeply since 2017. Most occurred in the northern region of Gyeonggi before spreading slowly to Gangwon (west to east) in 2018–2019. Multi-distance spatial cluster analysis provided an indirect estimate of the time taken for CSFV to spread among wild boars: 46.7, 2.6, and 2.49 days/km. The average CSF serum neutralization antibody titer was 4–10 (log 2), and CSFV Ab B-ELISA PI values ranged from 65.5 to 111.5, regardless of the age and sex of wild boars. Full genome analysis revealed that 16 CSFV strains isolated from wild boars between 2017 and 2019 were identical to the YC16CS strain (sub-genotype 2.1d) isolated from an outbreak in breeding pigs near the border with North Korea in 2016. The rapid increase in CSF in wild boars may be due to a continuously circulating infection within hub area and increased population density. The distribution pattern of CSFV in Korean wild boars moves from west to southeast, affected by external factors, including small-scale hunting, geographical features and highways. View Full-Text
Keywords: CSFV; wild boar; antibody; transmission; E2 CSFV; wild boar; antibody; transmission; E2
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Choe, S.; Cha, R.M.; Yu, D.-S.; Kim, K.-S.; Song, S.; Choi, S.-H.; Jung, B.-I.; Lim, S.-I.; Hyun, B.-H.; Park, B.-K.; An, D.-J. Rapid Spread of Classical Swine Fever Virus among South Korean Wild Boars in Areas near the Border with North Korea. Pathogens 2020, 9, 244.

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