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Open AccessArticle

Isolation of Acanthamoeba T5 from Water: Characterization of Its Pathogenic Potential, Including the Production of Extracellular Vesicles

1
Departamento de Parasitología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Montes de Oca 2060, Costa Rica
2
Centro de Investigación en Enfermedades Tropicales (CIET), Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Montes de Oca 2060, Costa Rica
3
Centro de Instrumentación Científica (CIC), Universidad de Granada, Granada 18071, Spain
4
Departamento de Parasitología, Grupo de Bioquímica y Parasitología Molecular (CTS 183), Instituto de Biotecnología, Campus de Fuentenueva, Universidad de Granada, Granada 18071, Spain
5
Instituto Universitario de Enfermedades Tropicales y Salud Pública de Canarias, Universidad de La Laguna, Avda. Astrofísico Fco. Sánchez, S/N, La Laguna, Tenerife, Islas Canarias 38203, Spain
6
Departamento de Obstetricia, Ginecología, Pediatría, Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública, Toxicología, Medicina Legal y Forense y Parasitología, Universidad de La Laguna, Avda. Astrofísico Fco. Sánchez, S/N, La Laguna, Tenerife, Islas Canarias 38203, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(2), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9020144
Received: 23 January 2020 / Revised: 12 February 2020 / Accepted: 19 February 2020 / Published: 21 February 2020
Acanthamoeba is a genus of free-living amoebae widely distributed in nature, associated with the development of encephalitis and keratitis. Despite the fact that it is common to find genotype T5 in environmental samples, only a few cases have been associated with clinical cases in humans. The wide distribution of Acanthamoeba, the characteristic of being amphizoic and the severity of the disease motivate researchers to focus on the isolation of these organisms, but also in demonstrating direct and indirect factors that could indicate a possible pathogenic potential. Here, we performed the characterization of the pathogenic potential of an Acanthamoeba T5 isolate collected from a water source in a hospital. Osmo- and thermotolerance, the secretion of proteases and the effect of trophozoites over cell monolayers were analyzed by different methodologies. Additionally, we confirm the secretion of extracellular vesicles (EVs) of this isolate incubated at two different temperatures, and the presence of serine and cysteine proteases in these vesicles. Finally, using atomic force microscopy, we determined some nanomechanical properties of the secreted vesicles and found a higher value of adhesion in the EVs obtained at 37 °C, which could have implications in the parasite´s survival and damaging potential in two different biological environments. View Full-Text
Keywords: pathogenic potential; proteases; cytopathic effect; extracellular vesicles; atomic force microscopy pathogenic potential; proteases; cytopathic effect; extracellular vesicles; atomic force microscopy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Retana Moreira, L.; Vargas Ramírez, D.; Linares, F.; Prescilla Ledezma, A.; Vaglio Garro, A.; Osuna, A.; Lorenzo Morales, J.; Abrahams Sandí, E. Isolation of Acanthamoeba T5 from Water: Characterization of Its Pathogenic Potential, Including the Production of Extracellular Vesicles. Pathogens 2020, 9, 144. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9020144

AMA Style

Retana Moreira L, Vargas Ramírez D, Linares F, Prescilla Ledezma A, Vaglio Garro A, Osuna A, Lorenzo Morales J, Abrahams Sandí E. Isolation of Acanthamoeba T5 from Water: Characterization of Its Pathogenic Potential, Including the Production of Extracellular Vesicles. Pathogens. 2020; 9(2):144. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9020144

Chicago/Turabian Style

Retana Moreira, Lissette; Vargas Ramírez, Daniel; Linares, Fátima; Prescilla Ledezma, Alexa; Vaglio Garro, Annette; Osuna, Antonio; Lorenzo Morales, Jacob; Abrahams Sandí, Elizabeth. 2020. "Isolation of Acanthamoeba T5 from Water: Characterization of Its Pathogenic Potential, Including the Production of Extracellular Vesicles" Pathogens 9, no. 2: 144. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9020144

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