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Open AccessArticle

Ecology and Infection Dynamics of Multi-Host Amdoparvoviral and Protoparvoviral Carnivore Pathogens

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Department of Biology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 232 Elizabeth Ave., St. John’s, NL A1B 3X9, Canada
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British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Lands, Natural Resource Operations, and Rural Development, Coast Area Research Section, Suite 103-2100 Labieux Rd., Nanaimo, BC V9T 6E9, Canada
3
British Columbia Ministry of Environment and Climate Change Strategy, PO Box 9338 STN Prov Govt, Victoria, BC V8W 9M2, Canada
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British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Lands, Natural Resource Operations and Rural Development, Wildlife Health Program, Wildlife and Habitat Branch, 2080 Labieux Rd., Nanaimo, BC V9T 6J9, Canada
5
Animal Health Center, British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture, 1767 Angus Campbell Rd., Abbotsford, BC V3G 2M3, Canada
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Pathogens 2020, 9(2), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9020124 (registering DOI)
Received: 23 January 2020 / Revised: 12 February 2020 / Accepted: 13 February 2020 / Published: 15 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling Virus Dynamics and Evolution)
Amdoparvovirus and Protoparvovirus are monophyletic viral genera that infect carnivores. We performed surveillance for and sequence analyses of parvoviruses in mustelids in insular British Columbia to investigate parvoviral maintenance and cross-species transmission among wildlife. Overall, 19.1% (49/256) of the tested animals were parvovirus-positive. Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) was more prevalent in mink (41.6%, 32/77) than martens (3.1%, 4/130), feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) was more prevalent in otters (27.3%, 6/22) than mink (5.2%, 4/77) or martens (2.3%, 3/130), and canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) was found in one mink, one otter, and zero ermines (N = 27). Viruses were endemic and bottleneck events, founder effects, and genetic drift generated regional lineages. We identified two local closely related AMDV lineages, one CPV-2 lineage, and five FPV lineages. Highly similar viruses were identified in different hosts, demonstrating cross-species transmission. The likelihood for cross-species transmission differed among viruses and some species likely represented dead-end spillover hosts. We suggest that there are principal maintenance hosts (otters for FPV, raccoons for CPV-2/FPV, mink for AMDV) that enable viral persistence and serve as sources for other susceptible species. In this multi-host system, viral and host factors affect viral persistence and distribution, shaping parvoviral ecology and evolution, with implications for insular carnivore conservation. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aleutian mink disease virus; canine parvovirus 2; feline panleukopenia virus; parvovirus; virus epidemiology; virus ecology; virus evolution; wildlife; mustelids Aleutian mink disease virus; canine parvovirus 2; feline panleukopenia virus; parvovirus; virus epidemiology; virus ecology; virus evolution; wildlife; mustelids
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Canuti, M.; Todd, M.; Monteiro, P.; Van Osch, K.; Weir, R.; Schwantje, H.; Britton, A.P.; Lang, A.S. Ecology and Infection Dynamics of Multi-Host Amdoparvoviral and Protoparvoviral Carnivore Pathogens. Pathogens 2020, 9, 124.

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