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Review

The Key Roles of Interferon Lambda in Human Molecular Defense against Respiratory Viral Infections

1
Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, 195251 St. Petersburg, Russia
2
Smorodintsev Research Institute of Influenza, Russian Ministry of Health, 196376 St. Petersburg, Russia
3
Russian Technological University (MIREA), 119454 Moscow, Russia
4
US Pharma Biotechnology, Inc., 5000 Thayer Center, Suite C, Oakland, MD 21550, USA
5
Global Virus Network(GVN), 725 W Lombard St, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
6
St. Petersburg State Chemical-Pharmaceutical Academy, 197022 St. Petersburg, Russia
7
Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(12), 989; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9120989
Received: 2 November 2020 / Revised: 23 November 2020 / Accepted: 24 November 2020 / Published: 26 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Collection Immunological Responses and Immune Defense Mechanism)
Interferons (IFN) are crucial for the innate immune response. Slightly more than two decades ago, a new type of IFN was discovered: the lambda IFN (type III IFN). Like other IFN, the type III IFN display antiviral activity against a wide variety of infections, they induce expression of antiviral, interferon-stimulated genes (MX1, OAS, IFITM1), and they have immuno-modulatory activities that shape adaptive immune responses. Unlike other IFN, the type III IFN signal through distinct receptors is limited to a few cell types, primarily mucosal epithelial cells. As a consequence of their greater and more durable production in nasal and respiratory tissues, they can determine the outcome of respiratory infections. This review is focused on the role of IFN-λ in the pathogenesis of respiratory viral infections, with influenza as a prime example. The influenza virus is a major public health problem, causing up to half a million lethal infections annually. Moreover, the virus has been the cause of four pandemics over the last century. Although IFN-λ are increasingly being tested in antiviral therapy, they can have a negative influence on epithelial tissue recovery and increase the risk of secondary bacterial infections. Therefore, IFN-λ expression deserves increased scrutiny as a key factor in the host immune response to infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: respiratory viruses; influenza; innate immunity; interferons-α/β; interferons-λ; interferon stimulated genes respiratory viruses; influenza; innate immunity; interferons-α/β; interferons-λ; interferon stimulated genes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lozhkov, A.A.; Klotchenko, S.A.; Ramsay, E.S.; Moshkoff, H.D.; Moshkoff, D.A.; Vasin, A.V.; Salvato, M.S. The Key Roles of Interferon Lambda in Human Molecular Defense against Respiratory Viral Infections. Pathogens 2020, 9, 989. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9120989

AMA Style

Lozhkov AA, Klotchenko SA, Ramsay ES, Moshkoff HD, Moshkoff DA, Vasin AV, Salvato MS. The Key Roles of Interferon Lambda in Human Molecular Defense against Respiratory Viral Infections. Pathogens. 2020; 9(12):989. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9120989

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lozhkov, Alexey A., Sergey A. Klotchenko, Edward S. Ramsay, Herman D. Moshkoff, Dmitry A. Moshkoff, Andrey V. Vasin, and Maria S. Salvato 2020. "The Key Roles of Interferon Lambda in Human Molecular Defense against Respiratory Viral Infections" Pathogens 9, no. 12: 989. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9120989

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