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The Xylella fastidiosa-Resistant Olive Cultivar “Leccino” Has Stable Endophytic Microbiota during the Olive Quick Decline Syndrome (OQDS)

1
Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Technologies, University of Salento, Via Prov. le Monteroni, I-73100 Lecce, Italy
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Federal Office for the Environment FOEN, Worblentalstrasse 68, CH-3063 Ittigen, Switzerland
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Sustainable Agroecosystems, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zurich, Universitätsstrasse 2, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland
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WSL Swiss Federal Research Institute, Zürcherstrasse 111, CH-8903 Birmensdorf, Switzerland
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Department of Forest and Conservation Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9010035
Received: 5 November 2019 / Revised: 20 December 2019 / Accepted: 23 December 2019 / Published: 31 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Pathogens)
Xylella fastidiosa is a highly virulent pathogen that causes Olive Quick Decline Syndrome (OQDS), which is currently devastating olive plantations in the Salento region (Apulia, Southern Italy). We explored the microbiome associated with X. fastidiosa-infected (Xf-infected) and -uninfected (Xf-uninfected) olive trees in Salento, to assess the level of dysbiosis and to get first insights into the potential role of microbial endophytes in protecting the host from the disease. The resistant cultivar “Leccino” was compared to the susceptible cultivar “Cellina di Nardò”, in order to identify microbial taxa and parameters potentially involved in resistance mechanisms. Metabarcoding of 16S rRNA genes and fungal ITS2 was used to characterize both total and endophytic microbiota in olive branches and leaves. “Cellina di Nardò” showed a drastic dysbiosis after X. fastidiosa infection, while “Leccino” (both infected and uninfected) maintained a similar microbiota. The genus Pseudomonas dominated all “Leccino” and Xf-uninfected “Cellina di Nardò” trees, whereas Ammoniphilus prevailed in Xf-infected “Cellina di Nardò”. Diversity of microbiota in Xf-uninfected “Leccino” was higher than in Xf-uninfected “Cellina di Nardò”. Several bacterial taxa specifically associated with “Leccino” showed potential interactions with X. fastidiosa. The maintenance of a healthy microbiota with higher diversity and the presence of cultivar-specific microbes might support the resistance of “Leccino” to X. fastidiosa. Such beneficial bacteria might be isolated in the future for biological treatment of the OQDS. View Full-Text
Keywords: endophytes; Olea europaea microbiota; plant microbiome modulation; Xylella fastidiosa endophytes; Olea europaea microbiota; plant microbiome modulation; Xylella fastidiosa
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Vergine, M.; Meyer, J.B.; Cardinale, M.; Sabella, E.; Hartmann, M.; Cherubini, P.; De Bellis, L.; Luvisi, A. The Xylella fastidiosa-Resistant Olive Cultivar “Leccino” Has Stable Endophytic Microbiota during the Olive Quick Decline Syndrome (OQDS). Pathogens 2020, 9, 35.

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