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Meningitic Escherichia coli Induction of ANGPTL4 in Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells Contributes to Blood–Brain Barrier Disruption via ARHGAP5/RhoA/MYL5 Signaling Cascade

by Lu Liu 1,2,3, Jixuan Li 1,2,3, Dong Huo 1,2,3, Zhong Peng 1,2,3, Ruicheng Yang 1,2,3, Jiyang Fu 1,2,3, Bojie Xu 1,2,3, Bo Yang 1,2,3, Huanchun Chen 1,2,3,4,* and Xiangru Wang 1,2,3,4,*
1
State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430007, China
2
Key Laboratory of Preventive Veterinary Medicine in Hubei Province, The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production, Wuhan 430007, China
3
Key Laboratory of Development of Veterinary Diagnostic Products, Ministry of Agriculture of the People’s Republic of China, Wuhan 430007, China
4
International Research Center for Animal Disease, Ministry of Science and Technology of the People’s Republic of China, Wuhan 430007, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2019, 8(4), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8040254
Received: 22 October 2019 / Revised: 19 November 2019 / Accepted: 20 November 2019 / Published: 22 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis of Fungal and Bacterial Microbes)
Bacterial meningitis is currently recognized as one of the most important life-threatening infections of the central nervous system (CNS) with high morbidity and mortality, despite the advancements in antimicrobial treatment. The disruption of blood–brain barrier (BBB) induced by meningitis bacteria is crucial for the development of bacterial meningitis. However, the complete mechanisms involving in the BBB disruption remain to be elucidated. Here, we found meningitic Escherichia coli induction of angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) in brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) contributes to BBB disruption via ARHGAP5/RhoA/MYL5 signaling cascade, by the demonstration that ANGPTL4 was significantly upregulated in meningitis E. coli infection of BMECs as well as mice, and treatment of the recombinant ANGPTL4 protein led to an increased permeability of the BBB in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we found that ANGPTL4 did not affect the expression of tight junction proteins involved in BBB disruption, but it increased the expression of MYL5, which was found to have a negative role on the regulation of barrier function during meningitic E. coli infection, through the activation of RhoA signaling pathway. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the disruption of BBB induced by ANGPTL4 through the ARHGAP5/RhoA/MYL5 pathway, which largely supports the involvement of ANGPTL4 during meningitic E. coli invasion and further expands the theoretical basis for the mechanism of bacterial meningitis. View Full-Text
Keywords: bacterial meningitis; BBB disruption; ANGPTL4; ARHGAP5; RhoA; MYL5 bacterial meningitis; BBB disruption; ANGPTL4; ARHGAP5; RhoA; MYL5
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Liu, L.; Li, J.; Huo, D.; Peng, Z.; Yang, R.; Fu, J.; Xu, B.; Yang, B.; Chen, H.; Wang, X. Meningitic Escherichia coli Induction of ANGPTL4 in Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells Contributes to Blood–Brain Barrier Disruption via ARHGAP5/RhoA/MYL5 Signaling Cascade. Pathogens 2019, 8, 254.

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