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Open AccessArticle

Role of Wild Boar in the Spread of Classical Swine Fever in Japan

1
Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Hokkaido University, Kita 20, Nishi 10, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0020, Japan
2
VISAVET Center and Animal Health Department, University Complutense of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
3
Akabane Animal Clinic, Co. Ltd., 55 Ishizoe, Akabane-cho, Tahara, Aichi-ken 441-3502, Japan
4
Global Station for Zoonosis Control, Global Institute for Collaborative Research and Education (GI-CoRE), Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0020, Japan
5
Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Disease Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 18, Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0018, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2019, 8(4), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8040206
Received: 11 September 2019 / Revised: 21 October 2019 / Accepted: 22 October 2019 / Published: 24 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Classical Swine Fever)
Since September 2018, nearly 900 notifications of classical swine fever (CSF) have been reported in Gifu Prefecture (Japan) affecting domestic pig and wild boar by the end of August 2019. To determine the epidemiological characteristics of its spread, a spatio-temporal analysis was performed using actual field data on the current epidemic. The spatial study, based on standard deviational ellipses of official CSF notifications, showed that the disease likely spread to the northeast part of the prefecture. A maximum significant spatial association estimated between CSF notifications was 23 km by the multi-distance spatial cluster analysis. A space-time permutation analysis identified two significant clusters with an approximate radius of 12 and 20 km and 124 and 98 days of duration, respectively. When the area of the identified clusters was overlaid on a map of habitat quality, approximately 82% and 75% of CSF notifications, respectively, were found in areas with potential contact between pigs and wild boar. The obtained results provide information on the current CSF epidemic, which is mainly driven by wild boar cases with sporadic outbreaks on domestic pig farms. These findings will help implement control measures in Gifu Prefecture. View Full-Text
Keywords: classical swine fever; spatio-temporal analysis; wild boar; transboundary diseases classical swine fever; spatio-temporal analysis; wild boar; transboundary diseases
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Ito, S.; Jurado, C.; Bosch, J.; Ito, M.; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J.M.; Isoda, N.; Sakoda, Y. Role of Wild Boar in the Spread of Classical Swine Fever in Japan. Pathogens 2019, 8, 206.

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