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Apoptosis, Autophagy, and Pyroptosis: Immune Escape Strategies for Persistent Infection and Pathogenesis of Classical Swine Fever Virus

College of Veterinary Medicine; South China Agricultural University; Guangzhou 510642, China
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Pathogens 2019, 8(4), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8040239
Received: 16 October 2019 / Revised: 13 November 2019 / Accepted: 14 November 2019 / Published: 16 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Classical Swine Fever)
Classical swine fever (CSF) is a severe acute infectious disease that results from classical swine fever virus (CSFV) infection, which leads to serious economic losses in the porcine industry worldwide. In recent years, numerous studies related to the immune escape mechanism of the persistent infection and pathogenesis of CSFV have been performed. Remarkably, several independent groups have reported that apoptosis, autophagy, and pyroptosis play a significant role in the occurrence and development of CSF, as well as in the immunological process. Apoptosis, autophagy, and pyroptosis are the fundamental biological processes that maintain normal homeostatic and metabolic function in eukaryotic organisms. In general, these three cellular biological processes are always understood as an immune defense response initiated by the organism after perceiving a pathogen infection. Nevertheless, several viruses, including CSFV and other common pathogens such as hepatitis C and influenza A, have evolved strategies for infection and replication using these three cellular biological process mechanisms. In this review, we summarize the known roles of apoptosis, autophagy, and pyroptosis in CSFV infection and how viruses manipulate these three cellular biological processes to evade the immune response. View Full-Text
Keywords: classical swine fever virus; apoptosis; autophagy; pyroptosis; pathogenesis classical swine fever virus; apoptosis; autophagy; pyroptosis; pathogenesis
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Ma, S.-M.; Mao, Q.; Yi, L.; Zhao, M.-Q.; Chen, J.-D. Apoptosis, Autophagy, and Pyroptosis: Immune Escape Strategies for Persistent Infection and Pathogenesis of Classical Swine Fever Virus. Pathogens 2019, 8, 239.

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