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Open AccessArticle

Prevalence, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Diversity of Salmonella along the Pig Production Chain in Southern Brazil

1
Departamento de Ciência Veterinárias, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Setor Palotina, Palotina, PR 85950-000, Brazil
2
Departamento de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, MG 36570-900, Brazil
3
Departamento de Higiene Veterinária e Saúde Pública, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP 18618-000, Brazil
4
Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP 05508-900, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2019, 8(4), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8040204
Received: 13 August 2019 / Revised: 17 October 2019 / Accepted: 22 October 2019 / Published: 24 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Microbiology of Foodborne Pathogens)
Control of Salmonella spp. in food production chains is very important to ensure safe foods and minimize the risks of foodborne disease occurrence. This study aimed to identify the prevalence and main contamination sources of Salmonella spp. in a pig production chain in southern Brazil. Six lots of piglets produced at different farms were tracked until their slaughter, and samples were subjected to Salmonella spp. detection. The obtained isolates were serotyped, subjected to antimicrobial resistance testing, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Salmonella spp. was detected in 160 (10.2%) samples, and not detected in pig carcasses after final washing or chilling. Among the 210 Salmonella spp. isolates, S. Typhimurium was the most prevalent (n = 101) and resistant to at least one antimicrobial. High resistance rates were detected against tetracycline (83.8%), chloramphenicol (54.3%), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (33.3%). The isolates that were non-susceptible to three or more classes of antimicrobials (n = 60) were considered multidrug-resistant (MDR), and isolates resistant to up to six of the tested antimicrobials were found. PFGE allowed the identification of genetic diversity and demonstrated that farm environment and feed supply may be sources for the dissemination of Salmonella spp. along the production chain. The results revealed the sources of Salmonella contamination in the pig production chain and highlighted the risks of antimicrobial resistance spread. View Full-Text
Keywords: Salmonella; pig production chain; PFGE; contamination routes; resistance Salmonella; pig production chain; PFGE; contamination routes; resistance
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dos Santos Bersot, L.; Quintana Cavicchioli, V.; Viana, C.; Konrad Burin, R.C.; Camargo, A.C.; de Almeida Nogueira Pinto, J.P.; Nero, L.A.; Destro, M.T. Prevalence, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Diversity of Salmonella along the Pig Production Chain in Southern Brazil. Pathogens 2019, 8, 204.

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