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Environmental Prevalence of Carbapenem Resistance Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in a Tropical Ecosystem in India: Human Health Perspectives and Future Directives

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Department F.-A. Forel for Environmental and Aquatic Sciences and Institute of Environmental Sciences, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Geneva, Uni Carl Vogt, 66 Boulevard Carl-Vogt, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
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Postgraduate and Research Department of Microbiology, Jamal Mohamed College, Tiruchirappalli 620020, Tamil Nadu, India
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Postgraduate and Research Department of Zoology, Jamal Mohamed College, Tiruchirappalli 620020, Tamil Nadu, India
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2019, 8(4), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8040174
Received: 1 August 2019 / Revised: 29 September 2019 / Accepted: 29 September 2019 / Published: 2 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Human Pathogens)
In the past few decades, infectious diseases have become increasingly challenging to treat, which is explained by the growing number of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Notably, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infections at global level attribute a vast, dangerous clinical threat. In most cases, there are enormous difficulties for CRE infection except a few last resort toxic drugs such as tigecycline and colistin (polymyxin E). Due to this, CRE has now been categorized as one among the three most dangerous multidrug resistance (MDR) pathogens by the US Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Considering this, the study of the frequency of CRE infections and the characterization of CRE is an important area of research in clinical settings. However, MDR bacteria are not only present in hospitals but are spreading more and more into the environment, thereby increasing the risk of infection with resistant bacteria outside the hospital. In this context, developing countries are a global concern where environmental regulations are often insufficient. It seems likely that overcrowding, poor sanitation, socioeconomic status, and limited infrastructures contribute to the rapid spread of MDR bacteria, becoming their reservoirs in the environment. Thus, in this review, we present the occurrence of CRE and their resistance determinants in different environmental compartments in India. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibiotic resistance bacteria; CRE; environment; India antibiotic resistance bacteria; CRE; environment; India
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Sivalingam, P.; Poté, J.; Prabakar, K. Environmental Prevalence of Carbapenem Resistance Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in a Tropical Ecosystem in India: Human Health Perspectives and Future Directives. Pathogens 2019, 8, 174.

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