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Open AccessArticle

Reduction of Arcobacter at Two Conventional Wastewater Treatment Plants in Southern Arizona, USA

1
Interdisciplinary Center for River Basin Environment, University of Yamanashi, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511, Japan
2
Division of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan
3
Department of Global Environmental Health Sciences, Tulane University, 1440 Canal Street, Suite 2100, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
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Division of Environmental Engineering, Hokkaido University, North 13 West 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628, Japan
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Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Yamanashi, 4-4-37 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8510, Japan
6
Water and Energy Sustainable Technology Center, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2019, 8(4), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8040175
Received: 3 September 2019 / Revised: 30 September 2019 / Accepted: 30 September 2019 / Published: 2 October 2019
This study aimed to identify the bacterial community in two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and to determine the occurrence and reduction of Arcobacter, along with virulence genes (ciaB and pldA). A total of 48 samples (24 influent and 24 effluent) were collected at two WWTPs in southern Arizona in the United States, monthly from August 2011 to July 2012. Bacterial DNA extract was utilized for 16S rRNA metagenomic sequencing. Quantification of Arcobacter 16S rRNA gene was conducted using a recently developed SYBR Green-based quantitative PCR assay. Among 847 genera identified, 113 (13%) were identified as potentially pathogenic bacteria. Arcobacter 16S rRNA gene was detected in all influent samples and ten (83%) and nine (75%) effluent samples at each plant, respectively. Log reduction ratios of Arcobacter 16S rRNA gene in Plant A and Plant B were 1.7 ± 0.9 (n = 10) and 2.3 ± 1.5 (n = 9), respectively. The ciaB gene was detected by quantitative PCR in eleven (92%) and twelve (100%) of 12 influent samples from Plant A and Plant B, respectively, while the pldA gene was detected in eight (67%) and six (50%) influent samples from Plant A and Plant B, respectively. The prevalence of potentially pathogenic bacteria in WWTP effluent indicated the need for disinfection before discharge into the environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: Arcobacter; next-generation sequencing; virulence gene; wastewater treatment Arcobacter; next-generation sequencing; virulence gene; wastewater treatment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ghaju Shrestha, R.; Sherchan, S.P.; Kitajima, M.; Tanaka, Y.; Gerba, C.P.; Haramoto, E. Reduction of Arcobacter at Two Conventional Wastewater Treatment Plants in Southern Arizona, USA. Pathogens 2019, 8, 175.

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