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Pathogens 2015, 4(3), 470-502;

Occurrence and Control of Legionella in Recycled Water Systems

American Water Research Laboratory, 213 Carriage Lane, Delran, NJ 08075, USA
American Water, 1025 Laurel Oak Road, Voorhees, NJ 08043, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Lawrence S. Young
Received: 23 May 2015 / Accepted: 24 June 2015 / Published: 1 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Waterborne Pathogens)
Full-Text   |   PDF [892 KB, uploaded 1 July 2015]   |  


Legionella pneumophila is on the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Candidate Contaminant list (CCL) as an important pathogen. It is commonly encountered in recycled water and is typically associated with amoeba, notably Naegleria fowleri (also on the CCL) and Acanthamoeba sp. No legionellosis outbreak has been linked to recycled water and it is important for the industry to proactively keep things that way. A review was conducted examine the occurrence of Legionella and its protozoa symbionts in recycled water with the aim of developing a risk management strategy. The review considered the intricate ecological relationships between Legionella and protozoa, methods for detecting both symbionts, and the efficacy of various disinfectants. View Full-Text
Keywords: amoeba; disinfection; Legionella; protozoa amoeba; disinfection; Legionella; protozoa

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Jjemba, P.K.; Johnson, W.; Bukhari, Z.; LeChevallier, M.W. Occurrence and Control of Legionella in Recycled Water Systems. Pathogens 2015, 4, 470-502.

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